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Ace, No. 


M '? ('IP KM Imri'ivuT \\iij iti 1 



D QOffrD3DD40fl 1 


United Study of Missions Series. 

i. VIA CHRISTL An Introduction. 


a. LtTX CHRISTI. A Study 



( _ 

r.'fif I 1 

^ K '* : ltl!liS^^ 













Set up and dectrotyjied August, 1909, 




IT is well known to many friends of missions that one 
of the results of the Ecumenical Conference of Foreign 
Missions in 1900 was a movement for a system, of united 
study among all the women's foreign missionary societies 
in the world. 

During the year 1902 the plan has been tried and 
proved most successful. The first course in the regular 
series was introductory and historical, concerning the 
progress of missions from apostolic times to the close of 
the eighteenth century, and was entitled "An Intro- 
duction, to the Study of Missions." The general idea 
and the special topics have been taken up with great 
and unexpected enthusiasm in nearly all of the forty 
women's foreign missionary societies in the United States 
and in Canada, and in some societies in Great Britain. 
The text-book for the course, " Via Christi," has reached 
a sale of thirty-five thousand copies, and testimony as to 
the vahie and interest of the course has been, almost 

The Central Committee now present as the second 
course in the series, for 1908, " A Study of India," for 
which " Lux Christi " is the text-book. India is a f asci- 


nating country to study, an<l encouraged by past sweens 

this second outline and t^xl-book are sent out with great 
confidence in tholr cordial rocoption. 


r<w Congregational 7/oww, Bo#ton t Mtutt*. 


Jtfmntvn, Centre, Ma$$. 


177 Pearl Street, Rochester, N",Y. 

Pre,$bf/tcrl(tn Kuildinff* 

j&ft y(fth Avenue, JVVw Turk C*//.v. 

Tr&tnont Temple > JBoston, 


THE foundation of the United Study of 
Missions was laid by Miss Hodgkins in "Via 
Christi." It is fitting- that the next subject 
of study should be India, for two reasons : 
India was the first field of Anglo-Saxon Prot- 
estant Mission**, and by reason of the seclusion 
and oppression of its women, it is preeminently 
woman's foreign missionary field. It can be 
said without hesitation that no portion of the 
heathen world can offer us a more fruitful sub- 
ject for study and investigation, whether we 
regard the kinship of the great Aryan race, the 
romance and adventure of early missionary his- 
tory, or whether we consider the land itself, 
with its wealth of ancient literature, profound 
philosophy, and wonderful architecture ; with 
its story of dramatic conquest and its haunting- 
sense of mystery. 

The present position of India as a dependency 
of our Anglo-Saxon kinsmen brings it pecul- 
iarly within the range of our interests; its 

viii Pit K FACE 

prominence In tlie diction of the day brings it 

vividly before our imaginations. May God 
grant that a year of earnest study shall lay the 
burden of its Christless millions heavily upon 
our hearts. 

In "Lux Christ! " the author Becks to furnish 
simply a starting-point from which sttulents 
may work out in all directions into the rich 
store of literature accessible. The little book 
is an outline, not a picture ; a condensed sum- 
mary, not a history of India, religious, political, 
or social. Neither is it a study of Christian 
missions in India in detail. To enter in any 
real sense upon that undertaking would require 
a series of volumes, and but a portion of two 
chapters was available. The attempt has been 
made to give the master motives, major powers, 
and great historical workers their fitting place ; 
only a few words, however, could be allowed to 
each, and many worthy names have been of 
necessity omitted altogether. Technical terms 
have been avoided and accents on Indian "word** 
have been omitted lest their UHO should add to 
the unfamiliar and difficult aspect of the pagan. 

The author's thanks are especially due to 
Miss Child, Mrs. (iracoy, and Mrs. Waterbury 
of the Central Committee for invaluable aid in 

PJ&EF.4CJS? ix 

the preparation of this study, and also to many 
other friends who have helped with timely sug- 
gestions ; in particular Dr. J. T. Gracey and 
Dr. T. S. Harbour, During the progress of 
this work numbers of reports, tracts, periodi- 
cals, and books, as well as letters, have been 
received from all parts of the country, from 
Canada, and also from England, Scotland, and 
Sweden. All have concerned India and all 
have been of interest and value. It has been 
impossible to acknowledge these favors indi- 
vidually, or to incorporate in " Lux Ghristi " a 
fractional part of their important information. 
May this means be taken for cordial thanks for 
these welcome aids. They have served a pur- 
pose, perhaps, above and beyond what was hoped 
for by those who sent them, for they have fur- 
nished a revelation of the magnitude of the 
work of God in India, and of the devotion of 
workers of every name. They have further- 
more offered convincing evidence of the insig- 
nificance of % the divisive differences between 
Christians, of the greatness of the underlying 
unity. Too long have we confined ourselves 
to the detailed study of our own limited fields, 
missing the sweep and the thrill which come 
with the wider knowledge of the work of the 


Church Universal. Nothing, In its way, could 
be more broadening and illuminating, or more 
full of encouragement than a systematic study 
of the work in India of all Christian missions. 
To this end the author would request that some 
effective method of exchange of periodical and 
other denominational literature appropriate to 
the general theme shall be devised, in order 
that each may know all, and that we may soo 
henceforth not Methodist India, or Presbyte- 
rian, or Baptist, but Chris f s Fndia* 

0. A. M, 

July 6, 1002. 



PREFACE ......... v 








MAIP OP INDIA facing 85 













THE W0MKN OF tS'WA ...... IH4 




LIGHT . ....... JKJU 

LIST tn^ TWKNTY B(K>KH ...... 209 



AUH TO l*H4WirN(*IATION ..*.* 27*1 


IHDBX . ...... 275 


-Jpj'c of a/tcer 6/'- 
s&cfrst.if //. /jf/s C"ross 
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1500 B.O.-1900 A,I>. 

FIRST PERIOD. Vediswi, 1500 B.C. to 000 B.C. 
Age of the Vedas* Chief gods, Varuua, Agni, Surya, 
Tndra, IMias, Yaiua, Rudras, Soma. All natural forces. 
Worship chiefly chanting and thank-offerings of rice, 
soma, and clarified butter. Non-idolatrous. Mention 
made of thirty- three gods in the Vodas. Woman held in 
high esteem. 

SECOND PERIOD. Brahmanism, 900 B.C. to 1200 A.IX 

liise of the power of the- priesthood, of the systems of 

animal sacrifice, and of caste. The Brahmanas, Code of 

Maiiu, Upaniskads, and Sutras, the Groat Epics, and the 

Puranas produced* 

THMD PERIOD. Buddhism, 548 B.C. to 900 A.I>. 
Growth BO great that in 250 B.C. Buddhism was de- 
clared the state religion of India. During the ninth 
century A.D. it was driven ont of the peninsula by a Brah- 
manical up rising. Survives chiefly in Ceylon and Burma* 
Jainism is a survival of Buddhism. 

FOURTH PEKIOD. Modern llindtusm, or popular 
Mythological Brahmanisni* This phase had its rise 
about 400 B.C., coincident with rise of Buddhism, and 
has continued down to the present- 
Idolatrous worship gf the Triad, Brahma, Vishnu, 
and Siva, their wives, and of Krishna, Rama, Kali, otc. 
Thirty-three millions of deities. Dogmas of transmigrar 
tion, caste, and Brahman dominance fixed and universal 
Worship of demons, spirits, serpents, the cow, the ox, 
and the bull, the fish, tortoise, and bear (the last three 
as incarnations of Vishnu), of plants, of the symbols of 
generative energy (Lmga and Yoni). Fetish worship. 
Degradation and seclusion of women. 




Here sits he shaping wings to fly ; 
His heart forebodes a mystery ; 
He names the name Eternity. 

Heaven opens inward, chasms yawn, 
Vast images in glimmering dawn, 
Half shown, are broken and withdrawn. 


IK the period during which the Hebrew 
people, led by Moses out of Egyptian, bond- 
age, were wandering on their devious course 
northward, or were entering their Promised 
Land by the fords of the Jordan, another 
great exodus was taking place, nearly two 
thousand miles to the east. 

Where the Caucasus and the Himalaya ranges 
meet, and the Oxus and the Indus Lave their 
sources, lies a vast and lofty ridge known as 
44 the roof of the world." Here dwelt a people 
of the great Aryan race, proud, free, and con- 
scious of their strength, who found their land 
too narrow for their vigorous growth. 



The Indo-Arymu 

Led by their seers (ilishis), chanting the 
earliest hymns of the Vetlas, this mighty con- 
quering horde poured southeastward through 
the rugged passes of the Caucasus and the 
Himalayas and entered their Holy Land, the 
Land of the Five Rivers (now known as 
the Punjab). Delighted with the wealth of 
rivers, the newcomers named their new land 
India, for the river Indus, or Siudliu. 

Great Asia wears as a belt around lier body, 
from the Red Sea to the Amoor River, a zone 
of desert plateau, studded here and there along 
its lower line by mountain ranges. Hanging 
like three trophies from this belt are three 
great peninsxilaH. Of these three, the central 
and greatest is the mighty pendant of India, 
"great, gray, formless India." 

Between the Himalayas and the Vinci hya 
mountains stretches the great central plain of 
Hindustan, The tribes which now pushed 
their way through this plain eastward toward 
the Jumna and the Ganges were not a nation 
of newly emancipated serfs, like the Hebrews, 
neither were they, like them, of Semitic origin 
(descendants of Shem, first-named son of Noah). 
They belonged to the splendid Aryan stock, 
from which the Brahman and tlie Englishman 
alike descend. From one and the same root 
spring the Celts, the Goths, the Slavs, the Per* 


sians, and the Hindus, all tracing their common 
origin to Japheth. Tho name "Aryan " means 
"noble"; the word " Sanskrit, 1 ' descriptive of 
the stately language of the Indo- Aryans, signi- 
fies "polished." l They were a highly intellectual 
people, subtle and profound, poetic and reli- 
gious in their instincts, skilled in logic, and, 
even in those shadowy ages, already achieving 
some skill in astronomical and other science. In 
person they were handsome, tall, fair, fine-feat- 
ured, full-bearded. Valiant in war, full of energy 
and force, these primitive invaders of India are 
shown by the Vedas to have had high concep- 
tions of family and domestic life; marriage was 
sacred among them and women held a high posi- 
tion. " Husband and wife were both rulers of 
the house and drew near to the gods together 
in prayer." 

Aborigines of India 

Like the Hebrews on their entrance into 
Canaan, the Tndo- Aryans, on their victorious 
inarch, found it necessary to conquer the abo- 
rigines, the native dwellers in the land. These 
non-Aryan races of India were of a distinctly 
lower type than their conquerors, dark-skinned, 
flat-nosed, squat in figure. They are described 
in the Veclas scornfully as " disturbers of sac- 
rifices," " raw-eaters," etc. They designated 
them the "Dasyus," or enemies, .and the 
"Dasas," or slaves. These lower tribes be- 
1 The Sanskrit is no longer a spoken language. 


longed to three great roots known as the 
Tibeto-Burman, the Kolarian, and the Dra- 
vidian. The descendants of the first-named 
are still to be found in the foot hills of the 
Himalayas, chiefly in upper Burma and Assam; 
the second are now scattered through central 
India; while the Dravidians are to be found 
quite compactly in the south. 

Each of these three groups has given rise to 
a large number of native, non-Aryan dialects. 
Out of twenty belonging to the Tibeto-Burman 
group we may mention the Burmese, Naga, and 
Garo ; out of nine Kolarian dialects, the Santali 
is the chief ; the Dravidian tribes furnish twelve 
distinct languages, among which are Telugu, 
Tamil, and Kanarese. The greater portion of 
these aboriginal tribes have submitted to the 
conquering race, and the mixed descendants of 
conquerors and conquered now make a large 
part of the Hindu people. About an equal 
number of each race have kept their ancient 
stock comparatively pure. There still linger, 
in the jungles and mountains, remnants of still 
earlier aboriginal tribes than these mentioned, 
for the latter seem to have been themselves 
invaders of India in some dim, prehistoric past. 

Contrasted Development of Hebrews and Indo- 

We have begun this study by drawing a par- 
allel between the contemporaneous exodus of 


two great peoples, the Hebrew and the Hindu. 
We mark that at the outset the Indo-Aryans 
were a free, highly developed people, entering 
a vast and fertile continent ; while the Hebrews 
were a horde of {slave-born wanderers, taking 
possession of a rocky strip of coast. The ques- 
tion must arise, Why should the Jewish people 
have advanced in civilization, intellectual force, 
and in spiritual attainment so far beyond the 
Hindu ? The answer may be briefly given as 
geographical and religious. India lies largely 
within the tropics. The enervating tropical 
climate has produced in the course of centuries 
a dreamy and brooding mental habit in place 
of the early creative and aggressive energy* 
Palestine, lying well to the north, bred a 
hardier and more stubborn type of men. 

The Hindus assimilated the semi-civilization 
of Asia ; the Jews the culture of Greece and 
Rome and of modern Europe. 

Israel with its lofty, original Jehovistic faith, 
which was destined indeed to be 

" dipt in baths of hissing tears, 
And battered with the shocks of doom/' 

yet in the end rejected every form of pagan 
polytheism, and thus by its unique monotheism 
became the channel through which the Supreme 
Revelation of the one God could logically come. 
The religion of the Indo-Aryans, on the other 
hand, while starting with a comparatively pure 


nature- worship (although the Rig- Veda lias allu- 
sions lo thirty-throe deities), rapidly degenerated 
into ritualistic and mythological Brahmanism 
with its monstrous misconceptions and puerile 
superstitions. With the degeneration of its reli- 
gion has come the degeneration of the people. 

The story of ancient India is in the main the 
story of the rise and fall of its religious systems, 
as the Hindus, in spite of an enormous bulk of 
literature, have no history, no records, no an- 
nals, for a reason we shall find later. 


i. Vedism. 

Going back to <lhn pre-Vodic ages, i*e. the 
ages before the Vedas were known, we lind 
the first conception of Deity among the Aryans 
to bear the name Varuna, "the EncompasseiV 
the name given to the infinite vault of heaven 
not to the sky, the realm of cloud and 
wind and rain. The hymns addressed to Va- 
runa which survive in the Vodas are not only 
the earliest contained in them and the noblest, 
but they are apparently monotheistic, although 
this monotheism was quickly lost. What in 
the Vedas often appears monotheistic, i.e. the 
ascription of supreme attributes to some Deity, 
is in reality due to the practice of worshipping 
one god at a time, and seeking to propitiate him 
by exalting Mm as the One and Only* 


The primitive objects of worship in tlie ab- 
sence of revealed religion are sure to be the 
forces of nature. Such were the gods of the 
Aryans, known under the general name of 
Devas, "the brig-lit ones." Agni, the god of 
fire, Indra, the god of rain, Surya, the sun or 
god of day, constituted a trinity of divinities. 
The Sun-god was also worshipped as Mitra, and 
the three letters, A. U. M., which combine to 
form the mystic syllable Om, were originally 
the initial letters of the trinity composed of 
Agni, Indra, 1 and Mitra. 

This notion of a triad, indefinitely multiplied, 
runs throughout the whole Hindu religion. The 
Vedas speak of the gods as u thrice eleven " in 
number, while later ages give thirty-three 

To the trinity of Fire, Wind, and Sun were 
soon added Ushas, the Dawn; Yama, the King 
of Death; Iluclras, the Storm God or Destroyer; 
and Soma, the Deification of the exhilarating 
juice of the soma plant. The Ninth Book of the 
Veda, composed of one hundred and fourteen 
hymns, is wholly devoted to the praise of soma. 
Indra was supposed to be peculiarly addicted 
to the intoxicating draught, and he is thus ad- 
dressed in the Rig- Veda, " Indra, take into thy 
belly the full wave of the inebriating soma, for 
thou art lord of libations." Again, with scant 
ceremony, " Sit down, Indra, upon the sacred 
* Varuna (U) was sometimes substituted for luclra. 


grass, and when thou hast drunk the soma, then, 
Indra, go home." Great were the orgies of 
gods and men on the Indian Olympus ! Agni, 
the Fire-god, was especially pleased by offerings 
of clarified butter (ffhee), as the pouring of this 
substance upon fire produced a brilliant blaze. 
The favorite epithets for Agni were therefore 
" butter-haired," u butter-backed," etc. 

The Vedic religion, in place of the stoical 
pessimism of later Hinduism, was full of a 
"joyous sense of life." The Rig-Veda has not 
a little poetic fire and elevation. Suggestions 
are found in it of the common traditions of the 
Creation, the Fall, the Deluge. The Veclas 
give no sanction to the doctrine of transmigra- 
tion of souls, the burning of widows, the prev- 
alence of child-marriage, the tyranny of caste 
(explicitly), nor the practice of idolatry. But 
while they are free from many of the corrup- 
tions of decadent Brahmanism, "they will be 
found," says Monier Williams, Boden Professor 
of Sanskrit at Oxford, " when taken as a whole, 
to abound more in puerile ideas than in lofty 
conceptions." Max Mtiller, the first translator 
of the Vedas, saj^s, " Large numbers of the Vedic, 
hymns are childish in the extreme "; sentiments 
and passions unworthy of deity are ascribed to 
the gods, not one of whom indeed, save Varuna, 
is of a pure and ]ofty character. Intelligent 
modern Hindus do not conceal their own dis- 
appointment at the sterility of the Vedas, which 


for centuries were practically unread. In short, 
the time lias gone by for enshrouding these 
interesting memorials in imposing mystery, and 
seeking to overawe the uninitiated by assertions 
of their inconceivable grandeur. They are 
translated now and can be read by any one who 
has patience to push his way through the " un- 
ar ranged, promiscuous mass . . destitute of 
system or harmony." Here and there may be 
found a noble hymn, a lofty prayer ; but between 
these oases , arc illimitable deserts of tedious 
sensuality, fantastic and monotonous beyond 
belief. The claim of extreme antiquity for the 
Vedas is surpassed by that of the earlier Hebrew 
scriptures ; and the moral elevation, of the latter, 
as well as their sustained poetic grandeur, shine 
with peculiar lustre by comparison. 

Vedism, or the purer early religion of the Vedas 
with its underlying monotheisiti, may be said 
generally to have extended to the eighth century 
B.C., when it was gradually overgrown by the 
second phase of Hindu religion, Brahmanism. 

2, Bralimanism. 

This word is formed from the term "Brahma," 
signifying the Supreme Soul of the Universe, 
at first known as Atman, the Breath of Life* 

The priestly class had now gained great 
power, and in their hands the Vedas were inter- 
preted to suit their own ends. The vague, sug- 
gestion of caste in the celebrated Purusha 1 

1 See pp. 31-32 for the origin and significance of caste. 


hymn of the Rig- Veda was by tho priests or 
Bralimans developed into a fourfold order, an 
unparalleled social tyranny. The Brahmanas, 
or ritualistic treatises, " which have hardly their 
match for pedantry and downright absurdity," 
were added to the Vedas, and the sacrificial 
system, which fed the priesthood more than the 
gods, was enormously elaborated, so that "the 
land was deluged in the blood of slain beasts." 

The Code of Manu 

The Code of Maim, although of gradual 
growth and indefinite date, belongs to this 
epoch. It came into being to stem the tide of 
rationalistic thought to which the exaggerations 
of the sacrificial system had given rise. This 
Code stands for rigid conservatism, for the iron 
severity of caste, and for the lex talionis in bit- 
terest cruelty, as thus indicated, " With what- 
ever member of the body a low-bom man may 
injure his superior, that very member of his 
body must be mutilated." (Book VIII .) A 
once-born man insulting twice-born men with 
abusive language must have his tongue cut 
out." (Book IX.) The authors of tho Code of 
Manu were evidently Brahmans, and its undevi- 
ating purpose is to intrench the Brahman caste 
finally and forever in its authority. The supo- 
riority of the Brahmans is the hinge on which 
the whole social organization turns. Besides 
these doctrines the Code of Maim discourses 


largely on the transmigration of souls. The 
following, in brief, is this theory, which is im- 
portant as being a pervasive, practical force 
to-clay in all Hindu life and thought, as charac- 
teristic of Buddhism as of Brahmanism : 

Every act and every thought produces either 
good or evil fruit. As a result of conduct on 
earth, the spirits of men are reincarnated in an 
endless succession of forms. The accepted 
number of rebirths is 8,400,000. A common 
colloquialism for the attainment of salvation is 
"to cut short the 84." A threefold alternative 
is presented to the soul : it may pass through 
deities, through men, or through beasts and 
plants. It will go through deities if goodness 
prevails in its nature ; through men if it is 
ruled by passion ; through beasts and plants 
if it dwells still lower in the moral scale, as, 
for instance, the soul may be reborn in the 
form of a worm in the body of an unclean 

A Brahman, neglecting his own appointed 
caste duty, will be born as a vomit- eating 
demon ; a soldier, as a demon feeding on excre- 
ment and dead bodies ; a husbandman, as a 
demon feeding on putrid carrion. 

The deterioration of the Vedic writings is 
well illustrated by comparing these degrading 
and loathsome terrors with the calm repose and 
noble faith of the Burial Hymn. 1 
i p. 32. 


The Ninth Book of the Code of Mann relates 
to women and fixes their status of inferiority 
and subservience as we find it in India to- 

" Women have no business with the text of 
the Veda ; this is fully settled ; therefore hav- 
ing no knowledge of expiatory texts, sinful 
women must be as foul as falsehood itself. This 
is a fixed law," etc. Hindu cosmogony and 
cosmography are dealt with in the code in a 
manner equally intelligent. 

Systems of Philosophy 

As an outgrowth of; the rationalistic tendency 
which the Code of Manu was framed to meet, 
we find at about this time a body of speculative 
doctrine put forth called the Upanishads. The 
dread of continued passing from one form of 
life to another had become " the one haunting 
thought which colored the whole texture of 
Indian philosophy." To liberate the spirit of 
man from this bondage of transmigration was 
known as " the Way of Knowledge," and con- 
stituted "the summum bonum of Bralxmanieal 

Upon the Upanishacls are built the three 
ruling systems of Hindu philosophy, vi/,., 
Nyaya, Sankhya, and Vedanta* The last 
named is the leading philosophy of India. The 
name means " the end or scope of the Veda," 
Its two cardinal principles are Illusion Maya 


and Pantheism. Maya is "a play which the 
Absolute plays with himself." The "great 
saying " is (9m, i.e. I am Gt-od or I am He. 
Again, " The whole universe is God." " There 
is nothing else." "Ignorance makes the soul 
think itself different from God, and it also pro- 
jects the appearance of an external world," in 
short, the finite world with all its appearances 
is all illusion. 

We can now understand why the history of 
the Hindu people has never been written or 
preserved. Vedantic and other similar doctrine 
have so practically and universally permeated 
the popular mind with the conception that all is 
illusion, that no human being and no earthly 
events or conditions have the slightest value, or 
are in any way worthy of record or investiga- 


Pantheism, the theory that all is God and 
God is all, there is nothing real in the uni- 
verse but God, for God is the universe, lies at 
the foundation of every phase of Hinduism, and 
expresses itself in the polytheism which regards 
all tilings, from the soul of man to the blade of 
grass, as worsJiipable^ since all alike are pervaded 
by divinity. Even the most uneducated Hindus 
state that they are themselves parts of the 
Deity, as are all other beings in the universe. 
This cardinal doctrine is summed up in the 
Chandogya Upanishad, " This atom belongeth to 


the Over-Soul, is the All, is the Truth, is the 
Over-Soul, That art thou" The lack of a 
sense of sinfulness, o liar actoris tic of the people, 
finds here its obvious explanation. There can 
be no guilt where all that we call good or evil 
is but the necessary self -manifestation of the 
one unconscious essence. All that we behold 
or conceive, animals, men, natural forces, and 
gods, are, according to the theory of Brah- 
manism, alike divine. Hence the rapid 'multi- 
plication of deities to thirty-three millions in 
decadent Hinduism. 

Reaction under Gautama 

In the sixth century u.o. there was born 
the son of a rajah of the Sakya tribe of Aryans, 
named Gautama, and afterward called the 
Buddha, or Enlightened One. Of the religion 
which was founded by this remarkable re- 
former, we shall speak more fully Inter. We 
mention it at this point only to consider its 
effect upon Brahmanism, against the tyranny 
and exaggerations of which it was a noble 
protest and one which for a time bade fair 
to prevail. 

Wherever the new religion spread, it produced 
a profound revolution in Indian thought and 
was enthusiastically accepted. With marvel- 
lous adroitness and subtlety the Brahmana met 
this reaction ; proved themselves able to assim- 
ilate all that they chose of the new cult, to 


popularize now aspects of ancient gods and 
heroes, and to weave all into one vast system, 
known as Hinduism, the lineal descendant of 
Vedism and Brahmanism* 

" Like an immense glacier," says Rowe, 
u slowly descending from the mountain, gather- 
ing up and incorporating stones, earth, and 
debris of whatever kind comes in its way, but 
at the same time accommodating itself to the 
configuration of the mountain side, so has Hin- 
duism come down through the ages, gathering 
up and incorporating whatever gods and god- 
desses, heroes and saints, religious theories and 
doctrines, rites and ceremonies, came in its way. 
So flexible is Hinduism, and in a certain way so 
tolerant, that Christianity, its deadly foe, could 
at once be incorporated into this huge system if 
Christians would but consent to have Jesus 
Christ regarded as one of the innumerable gods 
of the Hindu pantheon, form a caste subdivision 
by themselves, and pay proper horaaige to the 

3. Modern Hinduism or Mythological Brah- 

Buddhism grew to a great popularity in the 
century after the death of its founder, and it 
appears to be coincident with this movement 
that the Brahmans began to popularize their 
own religion, and to seek to satisfy the craving 
of the- people for personal gods with human 
attributes. Thence proceeded the gross degen- 

18 iirx CHEISTI 

eration of Hinduism, i.e. mythological Brali- 
manism. The system is briefly this : the prime 
universal essence is Brahma (neuter), which 
when united to Maya, or Illusion, gives birth 
to the primeval male god, Brahma, the Creator 
of all inferior forms, from himself to a tuft of 
grass. Two other essential functions, Preser- 
vation and Destruction, made it necessary to 
associate with Brahma two other personal 
deities, Vishnu, the Preserver, and Eudra- 
Siva, the Dissolver and Reproducer. These 
three gods, concerned in the threefold opera- 
tion of integration, maintenance, and disinte- 
gration, constitute the Tri-murti, or Sacred 
Triad of decadent Brahmanism. Of these three 
Brahma is practically ignored in the popular 
mind, and the original spiritual essence is lost 
in the very earthly personalities of Vishnu and 

Hindu Trimurti 

A Hindu poet of the third century A.D. thus 
idealizes the unity and the equality of the 2W- 
murti : 

In those three Persons the one God was shown - 
Each first in place, each last, not one alone ; 
Of Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, each may be 
First, second, third, among the blessed Three." 

From a work on India, by W. G. Williams, 
we take the diagram here given of the three 
members of the Tri-murti and their wives : 


[ Brahma, the Supreme 
[ Maya Illusion 


Brahma, Creator, 
his wife. 

Vishnu, Preserver, 
his wife. 

Siva, Destroyer, 
his wife. 

Parvati, wife of Siva, is also known as Durga and 
Kali. Her son is Ganesa, the elephant-headed 
god of wisdom, who is, moreover, a great glut- 
ton, devoted to soma and pancakes. The whole 
pantheon, indeed, teems with horrible and gro- 
tesque creations, half monster and half god. 


While each of the three persons of the Tri- 
murti has its own proper following, Vaishnavism, 
the especial worship and exaltation of Vishnu, 
the Preserver, has the popular heart. 

The chief distinction of Vishnu is that he 
has condescended to infuse his essence at dif- 
ferent times into animals and men, in a series 
of descents or incarnations, known as avatars. 
The ten great avatars are : 1. The Fish. 
2. The Tortoise. 3. The Boar. 4. The Man- 
lion. 5. The Dwarf. 6. Kama with the axe. 

7. Rama-candra, the hero of the Ramayana. 

8. Krishna, the most popular, and perhaps 
the most demoralizing, of all the Hindu gods. 

9. Buddha (adopted as an avatar of Vishnu, 
according to some authorities, in a spirit of 
shrewd compromise; according to others, as a 


Lying Spirit let loose to deceive men until 
the final descent of Vishnu). 10. Lalki. This 
descent, which is the last, is reserved for an 
indefinite future, when the wicked shall be 
destroyed and the world renovated. 

It is needless to attempt to enumerate the 
later Hindu gods and goddesses. They range 
from varying conceptions and expressions of 
the universal essence to the most loathsome 
fiends and ogresses. 

Kali Worship 

The female principle is worshipped under 
countless forms. The most appalling concep- 
tion is that of Kali, who is thus described in 
the Tantras, or sacred books of Goddess- 
worship : u One should adore with liquors 
and oblations that Kali, who has a terrible 
gaping mouth and uncombed hair; who has 
four hands and a splendid garland formed of 
the heads of the giants she has slain and whose 
blood she has drunk," etc., ad nauseam* Says 
a Hindu gentleman : " Popular ideas on the 
subject of Kali-worship by no means reach the 
mysterious vileness it suggests. Its real mean- 
ing cannot be explained. Those inclined to 
dive into such, filth must study the ritual for 

Decline from Varuna to Krishna 
Place beside this hideous distortion the figure 
of Krishna, the grossly immoral, coarse, and 


low-minded cowherd whose cult was worked 
out in the sixth century of the Christian era, 
and which is now the popular religion of India. 
Then glance back to the " roof of the world," 
and see the steady road of decadence and de- 
generation by which Hinduism has travelled 
from the free, high-hearted, conquering Aryans 
with their worship of the pure, all-encompass- 
ing infinitude of Varuna. Nevertheless the 
seed was in itself, for a taint of polytheism 
resided in the earliest Veclic conceptions of 
deity, a taint which, in the course of ages, has 
poisoned the blood in every minutest vein of 
the great Hindu organism. 

This third and worst stage of Hinduism is 
now the religion of probably over two hundred 
and seven millions of souls in India, to which 
it is confiited, since Hinduism is essentially an 
ethnic religion, like Confucianism and Zoroas- 


We have spoken, on an earlier page, of the 
birth of Sakya-Muni, or Gautama, the Buddha, 
or Enlightened One, in the sixth century B.C. 
Space cannot be given in this study to a detailed 
accoxint of his life and teaching. The main 
events and features are easily accessible, and 
as Buddhism is not an accepted or established 
religion at the present time in peninsular India, 
its detailed consideration belongs elsewhere. 


The legends narrate tliat Gautama, son of a 
rajah, of the Aryan race, born at Kapilavastu, 
in northern India, thwarted his father's desire 
for his worldly pleasure and advancement by 
his meditative and ascetic habit. Finally, at 
the age of twenty-nine, he broke away from the 
court altogether, and made what is known as 
his " Great Renunciation," forsaking his palace, 
father, wife, child, and assuming the dress and 
entering upon the life of a mendicant. 

For six years Gautama practised the auster- 
ities of a Brahman ascetic, but found no peace. 
Then he returned to the ordinary life of com- 
mon people, and after sitting lost in contempla- 
tion under the sacred pipal tree at Gaya for 
a week and suffering from divers fiery tempta- 
tions, he attained to the vision of the Way of 
true peace and holiness. After this experience 
Gautama was known as the Buddha. 

SuddMst Doctrine 

Although he broke with the current Brahman- 
ism of his day at many points, Buddha re- 
moulded without discarding its most monstrous 
fiction, viz., the transmigration of souls. This 
doctrine, indeed, in a somewhat idealized form, 
was the essential foundation of his whole system. 
Starting with the conviction that the delusion 
of individuality is the chief Fetter of the soul, 
and the desire for preserving the identity, the 
promoting cause for the myriad rebirths, Buddha 


sougiit and found " the Way " to the only re- 
lease, the only salvation, i.e. Nirvana, literally 
the "going out," as of the flame of a candle. 

The Buddhist books (the Tripitaka, three 
baskets) are full of descriptions of means by 
which to get rid of the delusion of individuality, 
to enter the Path to Extinction. The con- 
ception of moral discipline, lore, charity, and 
fraternity, as "the Path," in place of sacrifice 
and ceremony, is the nobly distinguishing note 
of Buddhism in contrast with Brahmanism, 
For polytheism, the Buddha substituted atheism, 
without however breaking sharply with the 
established system. He never claimed divinity, 
and was a saviour only in that he taught his 
rules for perfection, which were an immense 
advance over the teaching of Brahmanism, but 
far below the level of the teachings of Christ. 
He died of indigestion at Kusinara, at the age of 
eighty years, 

Spread of Buddhism 

Buddhism was from the first a missionary 
religion, unlike Brahmanism, which has never 
gone beyond India. Multitudes accepted its 
teachings in Nepaul, Thibet, Burma, Ceylon, 
China, Siam, and Japan, and it is now the 
popular religion of all eastern Asia save India, 
numbering four hundred millions of adherents. 
In India the new religion in a few centuries 
largely took the place of Brahmanism, being 
zealously promulgated by the renowned Indian 

24: Jtrar CHEISTI 

monarch, Asoka, the Oonstantine of Buddhism. 
Asoka even sent missionaries to Syria, Egypt, 
and Greece to proclaim, the doctrines of Buddha. 

SuddJiism driven out of India 
In its turn Buddhism, however, became en- 
feebled and corrupt. After a fierce struggle, 
confused and protracted, against the rehabili- 
tated Brahmanism, with its tempting array of 
social and dramatic deities, it was annihilated 
in India, save as absorbed into the great Hindu 
system. Its monasteries and temples were de- 
stroyed, its priests and people slain, exiled, or 
brought over to the ancient faith. 

Burma and the island of Ceylon are the only 
parts of India where Buddhism now lingers. 
In them both, Buddhism in its purest and least 
adulterated form can be found. The latter is 
the seat of Buddhist scholars and devotees. 
At Kandy is the temple in which is preserved 
the so-called " tooth of Buddha," the object of 
intense adoration. Buddhism survives also to 
a certain extent in southern India in the form 
of Jainism, which is a product of mixing Brah- 
manism and Buddhism. Its temples are par- 
ticularly noteworthy. Together Buddhism 
and Jainism number a little more than seven 
millions of the population of India. 

Defects of Suddlmm 

It is noticeable that to no one o the nations 
professing it has Buddhism given advanced 


civilization or a high type of personal religion. 
Its theories are lofty but singularly barren, as 
are all stoical systems. It has been common 
of recent years to refer to Arnold's "Light of 
Asia " as an authoritative utterance concerning 
Buddha. That perf ervid piece of hero-worship, 
however, bears slight resemblance to the sim- 
ple dignity of the real story of Gautama, and is 
looked upon by philosophical Buddhist scholars 
as a species of metaphysical Lalla Rookh. It 
may be added in passing, concerning the cult 
known in England and America as "Esoteric 
Buddhism," that Dr. Rhys Davids, our chief 
authority on the religion of Gautama, says it 
may be all very well, but it is not esoteric, and 
it is not Buddhism. 

The Pitakas have not all, as yet, been trans- 
lated. When complete they will cover ten 
thousand pages. They are said to be turgid 
and wearisome in the extreme. 

Much as it has been vaunted by recent en- 
thusiasts, early Buddhism was atheistic, and 
it remains a gloomy religion, bloodless and 
lifeless, and has become grossly degraded by 
superstition. .Says James Freeman Clarke : 
" It is an outward constraint, not an inward 
inspiration. Nihilism arrives sooner or later. 
God is nothing, man is nothing, life is nothing, 
death is nothing, eternity is nothing. Hence 
the profound sadness of Buddhism. . . . The 
only emancipation from self-love ia in the 


perception of an infinite love. Buddhism, 
ignoring this infinite love, incapable of com- 
munion with God, aiming at morality without 
religion, at humanity without piety, becomes at 
last the prey to the sadness of selfish isolation. 
. . . Christianity touches Buddhism at all its 
good points, in all its truth. . . , but to all this 
it adds how much more ! It fills up the dreary 
void of Buddhism with a living God. . . It 
gives a divine as real as the human, an infinite 
as solid as the finite. And this it does, not by 
a system of thought but by a fountain and 
stream of life." 


to all of which the inclusive term Veda (Divine Knowl- 
edge) is applied by the Brahmans. The original text of 
all is Sanskrit, but many parts have been translated into 
the Vernacular. 

I. The four Vedas proper. 

Wliile existing orally for many centuries before Christ, 
these productions remained unwritten until the fifteenth 
century A.D. 

The four books are each divided into two parts : first, the 
Mantra, or hymns of praise and prayer ; second, the Brah- 
mana, a ritualistic treatise, generally in prose, somewhat 
akin to the book of Leviticus in the Hebrew Scriptures. 

1. The Miy-Veda, or Hymn-Veda. This is the first 
Bible of the Hindu religion, the oldest and only important 
part of the four Vedas. It is a collection of 1017 hymns, 
containing 10,580 verses, chiefly addressed to the gods. 
It is the great literary memorial of the entrance of the 


Aryan race Into India, about 1500 B.C. It shows them 
on their victorious march through Cabul to the Punjab, 
among the. great river systems of the Indus and the 
Jumna, and moving eastward to the Ganges. 

2. The Sacrificial -Veda, or Yakur-Veda, 1 belongs to a 
later phase of the Hindu system, and is mainly liturgical. 

3, The Chant -Veda, Sama-Veda 9 closely resembles the 
second. It contains hymns to be chanted at certain 
ceremonies where the juice of the soma plant was the 
chief offering. 

4> The Spell- Veda, Atha,rva-Veda 9 is much later in 
origin than the rest, and was not perhaps recognized as 
a fourth Veda until about the fifth century B.C. The 
most prominent characteristic feature of the Atharvan is 
the multitude of incantations which it contains. 

II. The Code of Manu. 

Date, about 000 B.C. according to Moxrier Williams. 

The body of Hindu law, whose originator is unknown. 
It is the chief authority in Hindu jurisprudence, and 
contains precise rules for the constitution of the Hindu 
social fabric, for the due coordination of its different 
orders, and for the regulation o everyday domestic life. 

These rules are contained in three principal codes 
which together constitute a kind of Bible of legal 
Brahmanism, and remain, in their control of Indian 
social and domestic life, little changed by the lapse of 
more than two thousand years. The rules of caste are 
rigidly enforced. 

Book I is on Creation. Book II on Education and the 

1 A few years ago a part of the Yah ur- Veda was translated 
into the Vernacular for general circulation. Cautious as is 
the British government in offending the religious prejudices 
of the people, those concerned in the translation and pub- 
lication were punished as having violated the law against 
obscene literature. 


Priesthood. rooks IH-IV on Private Morals. Book V 
on Diet. Book VI on Devotion. Book VII on the 
Duties of Rulers. Book VIII on Civil and Criminal 
Law. Book IX 011 Women, Families, and the Law of 
Caste. Book X on Mixed Classes and Times of Distress. 
Book XI on. Penance and Expiation. Book XII on 
Transmigration and Final Beatitude. 

III. T3ie Upanishads and Sutras. 

Date, about 500 B.C. 

The Upanishads, or "instructions," formed the Bible 
of philosophical Brahmanism. At least two hundred and 
fifty of them are known to exist. They had their origin 
in the ascetic tendency which led many Brahmans to liee 
to the forests for seclusion in which to pursue their 
flights of speculative thought. These recluses gradually 
composed and built up a series of forest treatises known 
as the " Aranyakas," out of which grew the later and 
more systematized Upanishads. The systems of philos- 
ophy which are founded on these mystical and specula- 
tive writings are known as Shastras, a term which is 
also "used to cover the Vedas and the whole body of laws, 
letters, and religion. The Sutras are concise sentences 
which contain " the distilled essence of all the knowledge 
which the Brahmans have collected during centuries of 

IV. Tlie two great Epic Poems, the Ramayana and the 
Maha-bharata, which, may be called "the Bible of the 
Mythological Phase of Brahmanism. " 

Date, variously placed from 500 or 400 B.C. to the 
beginning of the Christian era. 

These two poems are called The Iliad and Odyssey of 
the Hindus," and there is some reason to believe that the 
motifs of them were borrowed from Homer. 

The Eamayana, sometimes termed " The Iliad of the 


East," treats of a war undertaken to recover the wife of 
oute of the warriors, wlio was carried oil by the hero on 
the other side. Rama is the hero ; the chaste and beauti- 
ful Sita, his wife. Tho poem consists of twenty-four 
thousand verses* 

The Maha-bharata is the most gigantic poem in exist- 
ence, containing two hundred and toventy thousand lines, 
and is not a single poem, but an unwieldy collection of 
Hindu mythology, legend, and philosophy. Different por- 
tions can be traced to different dates. 

Included in the great epic is an interpolation known 
as the Bhagavad-Gita, or " Divine Song," consisting of a 
long discourse in dialogue form by Krishna. It affirms 
the divinity of Krishna, and is an attempt to reconcile 
the various Hindu philosophies. It is usually assigned 
to the third century A.D. 

V. ThePuranas. 

Date, 600 and 700 A,T>., and later. 

The name Parana signifies au old tradition. These, 
the most modern of Hindu sacred books save the Tan- 
tras, are sometimes called a fifth Veda, being designed 
to teach Vedic doctrines to women and low caste men. 
The theology and cosmogony of these books are largely 
drawn from earlier writings. As far as actual history 
or chronology goes, the Puranas are valueless, but their 
myths and legends shed light on the customs of the 
people and times. Contending sects have contributed. to 
them many absurd fictions for the glorification of Vishnu, 
Siva, and other favorite deities. The Puranas contain 
one million six hundred thousand lines, and may be 
called the Bible of Saivism and Vaishnavism. 

VI. The Tantras. 

Date not fixed, probably somewhat later than the 

The Bible of Saktism, inculcating exclusive adoration 
of Sakti, wife of the god Siva. The Tantras present 


Hinduism " at its worst and most corrupt stage of devel- 
opment." They identify all force with the female prin- 
ciple in nature. " A vast proportion of the inhabitants 
of India are guided in their daily life by Tantrik teaching 
and are in bondage to its gross superstitions." (Monier 
Williams.) The Tantras have never been translated. 



Let me not yet, O Varuua, enter into the house of 
clay; have mercy, almighty, have mercy ! 

If I go trembling, like a cloud driven by the wind, 
have mercy, almighty, have mercy 1 

Through want of strength, thou strong and bright 
god, have I gone to the wrong shore ; have mercy, al- 
mighty, have mercy ! 

Thirst came upon the worshipper, though he stood 
in the midst of the waters; have mercy, almighty, have 
mercy ! 

Whenever we men, O Varuua, commit an offence be- 
fore the heavenly host; whenever we break thy law 
through thoughtlessness; have mercy, almighty, have 
mercy 1 _ Riff-Veda. 


In the beginning thei^e was neither naught nor aught; 

Then there was neither sky nor atmosphere above. 

What then surrounded all this teeming universe ? 

In the receptacle of what was it contained ? 

Was it enveloped in the giilf profound of water ? 

Then there was neither death nor immortality ; 

Then there was neither day, nor night, nor light, nor 

Only the Existent One breathed calmly, sell-contained, 


Naught else but he there was naught else above, beyond. 
Then first came darkness hid in darkness, gloom in 

gloom ; 

Next all was water, all a chaos indiscrete, 
In which the One lay void, shrouded in nothingness. 
Then turning inwards, he, by self-developed force 
Of inner fervor and intense abstraction, grew. 
First in his mind was formed Desire, the primal germ 
Productive, which the wise, profoundly searching, say 
Is the first subtle bond connecting Entity 
And Nullity. Rig-Veda. 

How many births are past, I cannot tell ; 

How many yet to come no man can say ; 
But this alone I know, and know full well, 

That pain and grief embitter all the way. 

South India Folk Sony. 

A Brahman who holds the Veda in his memory is 
not culpable though he should destroy the three worlds. 
Code of Mann. 


The embodied spirit has a thousand heads, 

A thousand eyes, a thousand feet, around 

On every side enveloping the earth, 

Yet filling space no larger than a span. 

He is himself this very universe ; 

He is whatever is, has been, and shall be ; 

He is the lord of immortality. 

All creatures are one-fourth of him, three-fourths 

Are that which is immortal in the sky. 

From him, called Pnrusha, was born Viraj, 

And from Viraj was Purusha produced, 

Whom gods and holy men made their oblation. 

With Piimsha as victim they performed 

A sacrifice. When they divided him, 

How did they cut him up ? What was his mouth ? 


What were his arms? and wliat his thighs and feet? 
The Brahman was his mouth, tho kingly soldier 
Was made his arms, the husbandman his thighs, 
The servile Sudra issued from his feet. Ely-Veda. 

This hymn (generally admitted to be a comparatively 
modern production) is the only hymn in the Rig-Veda 
which alludes to the distinctions of caste. 

As set forth in the hymn the divine order of caste 
seems to be : 

1. The Brahman, who is supposed to issue from the 
mouth of Brahma. The Brahmans are therefore re- 
garded as divinities, whose teaching is an infallible 
authority. They only can teach the Veda. 

2. Kshatiiya, or the " kingly soldier," who issues from 
the arms of Brahma. This caste ranks next the Brah- 
mans in position and influence, cooperating with them in 
retaining ascendency over the lower classes. To it belong 
the famous Rajputs. 

8. The Vaisya, or husbandman caste, which comes 
from the thighs of Bralima. To this caste belong endless 
subcastes according to kind of occupation. These three 
ranks claim, to be " twice born," and are all invested with 
the sacred thread, which is of cotton for the Brahmans, 
hemp for the Kshatiiya, wool for the Vaisya. 

4. The Sudra, or servile class, issuing from the feet of 
Brahma, comprising those only " once born." 

All below the Sudras are outcasts, or Pariahs. 

The Sudra and the unmarried woman of any caste, 
even the highest, are left outside the pale of Brahmanical 


Open thy arms, earth ! receive the dead 
With gentle pressure and with loving welcome. 
Enshroud him tenderly, even as a mother 
Folds her soft vestment round the child she loves. 
Soul of the dead, depart f take thou the path 


The ancient path by which our ancestors 
Have gone before thee ; thou shalt look upon 
The two kings, mighty Varuna and Yama, 
Delighting in oblations; thou shalt meet 
The Fathers and receive the recompense 
Of all thy stored-up offerings above. 
Leave thou thy sin and imperfection here ; 
Return unto thy home once more ; assume 
A glorious form. 

From the Siitras. 


All this universe indeed is Brahma; from him does 
it proceed ; into him it is dissolved ; in him it breathes. 
So let every one adore him calmly. 

CJiandogya UpanisJiad. 


An archer shoots an arrow which may kill 
One man, or none ; but clever men discharge 
The shaft of intellect, whose stroke has power 
To overwhelm a king and all his kingdoms. 


Do naught to others which, if done to thee, 
Would cause thee pain ; this is the sum of duty, Ibid. 

When men are ripe for ruin, e'en a straw 

Has power to crush them like a thunderbolt. Ibid. 

Enjoy thou the prosperity of others, 

Although thyself unprosperous ; noble men 

Take pleasixre in their neighbor's happiness. Ibid. 

An evil-minded man is quick to see 
His neighbor's faults, though small as mustard-seed ; 
But when he turns his eyes toward his own, 
Though large as Bilva fruit, he none descries. Ibid. 


Treat no one with disdain, with, patience bear 
Reviling language ; with an angry man 
Be never angry ; blessings give for curses. 

. Code of Afanu. 

The soul is its own witness ; yea, the soul 

Itself is its own refuge : grieve thou not, 

man, thy soul, the great internal witness. Code. 

Thou canst not gather what thou dost not sow, 
As thou dost plant the tree so will it grow. Code. 

lie who by firmness gains the mastery 

Over Ms words, Ms mind, and his whole body, 

Is justly called a triple governor. Code. 

'Tis a vain thought that to attain the end 
And object of ambition is to rest. 
Success doth only mitigate the fever 
Of anxious expectation ; soon the fear 
Of losing what we have, the constant care 
Of guarding it, doth weary. 

Hindu Drama, Kalidttsa. 

The most prolific source of true success 

Is energy without despondency. Romayana. 

Where'er we walk, Death marches at our side; 
Where'er we sit, Death seats himself beside us ; 
However far we journey, Death continue?* 
Our fellow-traveller, and goes with us home. lUd. 


After a life-long study of the religious books of th 
Hindus I feel compelled to express publicly my opinion 
of them. They begin with much promise amid scintilla- 
tions of truth and light, and occasional sublime thoughts 


from the source of all truth and light, but end in sad 
corruptions and lamentable impurities. SIR MONIEK 


And if you should ask, " How does he who orders his 
life aright realize that Nirvana ? " I should reply : " He, O 
King, who orders his life aright grasps the truth as to the 
development of all things, and when he is doing so he 
perceives therein birth, he perceives old age, he perceives 
disease, he perceives death; but he perceives not therein, 
whether in the beginning, or the middle, or the end, any- 
thing worthy of being laid hold ot" as lasting satisfac- 
tion. . . . And discontent arises in his mind when he 
thus finds nothing fit to be relied on as a lasting satisfac- 
tion, and a fever takes possession of Ms body, and without 
a refuge or protection, hopeless, he becomes weary of re- 
peated lives. . . . And in the mind of him who thus 
perceives the insecurity of transitoiy life, of starting 
afresh in the innumerable births, the thought arises: 
All on fire is this endless becoming, burning, and blaz- 
ing ! Pull of pain is it, of despair ! If only one could 
reach a state in which there were no becoming, there 
would there be calm, that would be sweet the cessation 
of all these conditions, the getting rid of all these defects 
(of lusts, of evil, and of Karma), the end of cravings, the 
absence of passion, peace, JSTirvana 1 " 

And therewith does his mind leap forward into that 
state in which there is no becoming, and then has he 
found peace, then does he exult and rejoice at the thought : 
" A refuge have T gained at last ! " RHYS DAVIDS' 


I do not see any one in the heavenly worlds, , . . 
nor among gods or men, whom it would be proper for 
me to honor. BUDDHA. 

86 j&rrx CHEIBTI 


I. The Aryans and the Native Tribes of India. 

II. The Rig- Veda. 

III. Contrast between Judaism and Hinduism. 

IV. The Eivers and Mountains of India. 
V. Pantheism and Polytheism. 

VI. The Great Epics of India; Comparison of these 

with the Iliad and the Nibeltmgenlied. 
VII. The Weakness and Strength of Buddhism. 
VIII. What Influences have led to the Decadence of the 

Hindu People ? 

IX. Hindu Symbols, Go da, and Images. 
X. Caste, the Supremacy of the Brahmans, and tlie 
Transmigration of the Soul, the Cardinal Points 
of Hinduism. 
XI. The Hindu Triad: Brahma, Vishnu, Siva, with 

the Incarnations of Vishnu.* 
XII. Buddhist and Jain Architecture. 


For general reference on this and succeeding chapters ; 

Bliss's "Encyclopaedia of Missions." 

Eeclus's India and Indo-China," Vol. Ill, in The Earth 

and its Inhabitants." 
"Encyclopaedia Britannica," article "India," by Sir W. W. 

Hunter, or Its equivalent, " The Indian Empire/' by 

the same author. 

Hunter's Brief History of the Indian Peoples." 
Gracey's "India." 
Beach's " Cross iu the Land of the Trident." 

For special reference on above themes : 

Butler's "Land of the Veda," II, VIII, IX, X. 

Clarke's Ten Great Religions," II, III, V, VI, VII, IX, 



Rhys Davids' " Buddhism," VII. 

Fergnsson's " Indian Architecture," XII. 

Graham's " Great Temples of India, Ceylon, and Burma," 

Kellogg's " Handbook of Comparative Religions," V, VI, 

Living Papers Series, " Non-Christian Religions of the 

World," I, II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI. 
Max Miiller'a " Origin of Religion," II, V. 
Max Miiller's " India Und what it can teach us," II. 
Max Miiller's " Chips from a German Workshop," II, VII. 
Ragozin's " Vedic India," I, II, V, VI, XL 
Reed's "Hindu Literature," II, V, VI, VIII, IX, XL 
Rousselet's " India and its Native Princes," IV, IX, XII. 
Sir M. Williams's "Indian Wisdom," II, V, VI, X. 
Sir M. Williams's " Religious Thought and Life in India," * 


1 A later edition has "been published under title " Brahmanism 
and. Hinduism." 


508 B.C. . 
327 . . . 
316 ... 
250 ... 
161 ... 
100 B.C. 
500 A. ix > 
700 A.T>. 

1001 . . . 

Persian Invasion under Darius. 

Greek Invasion under Alexander the Great. 

Chandra Gupta founds Behar. 

Asoka establishes Buddhism as state religion. 

Bactrian Invasion. 

[- Scythian or Tatar Invasions. 

Earlier religions merged in Modern Hindu- 
ism. Parsi settlements in western India. 
First Invasion of Punjab by Mahmud ol" 


1000-1705 Mohammedan Invasions and rule of Mara. 
1398 . . . Tamerlane invades India. 
1 525-1 857 Mughal Empire. 
1 556 - . . Akbar the Great, " 
1605 . . - Jehangir, 
1627 . . . Shah Jehan, 
1058-1707 Aurangsseb, ., 

1498 . . . Portuguese Expedition under Vasco da Gama. 
1500-1000 Portuguese Monopoly of Oriental trade. 
1602 . . . Dutch East India Company founded. 
1604 . . . The French enter India. 

1600-1857 British East India Company maintains mili- 
tary and commercial power. 
1739-1761 Afghan Invasion and Sack of Delhi. 
1757 . . . Lord Olive's victory at Plassey establishes 

British Empire in India. 
1857 . . . Sepoy Mutiny and Dissolution of East India 

1877 . , , Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India. 

Famous Mughal rulers. 


For the gods 

They smile in secret, looking over wasted lands, 
Blight and famine, plague and earthquake, roaring deeps 

and fiery sands, 
Clanging fights and flaming towns, and sinking ships and 

praying hands. TENNYSON. 

now emerge from tlie dusk of legend and 
tradition into the light of written history. 

For the facts of India's authentic history we 
must, however, turn to foreign writers. "While 
from them we learn of many successive invasions 
marking many phases of national life, we can, 
broadly speaking, divide the whole history into 
three great eras : the Hindu, the Mohammedan, 
and the British. 


Iii the year 508 B.C. Darius Hystaspes, suc- 
cessor of Cyrus the Great, is said to have under- 
taken an expedition against India. He caused 
a fleet to be fitted out upon the Indus, under the 
command of Scylax, who pushed his way into 
the Punjab, and by his conquests added an im- 
mense revenue to the Persian treasury. Later 



we hear of Indian soldiers, clothed in white 
cotton, marching in the ranks of Xerxes' army 
against the Greeks. 


In 327 B.C. Alexander the Great invaded 
India, by way of Afghanistan, and conquered 
Porus, the Indian ruler of the sacred "land of 
the five rivers," the famous Punjab. Many 
garrison stations founded by Alexander are 
to-day prosperous cities, as Patala (Hydera- 
bad in Sind), Taxila (Deri-Shahan), Alexandria 
(Uchch), and others. The Greek Megasthenes 
has left glowing record of the valor of the Indian 
men and the chastity of the women. Nea"> the 
close of the fourth century B.C. the native Indian 
prince, Chandra Gupta, known to the Greeks as 
Sandracottus, began to build up a rival prin- 
cipality at Behar, in the valley of the Ganges, 
while the Greek supremacy still existed in the 
Punjab, and diffused Greek influences which 
proved to be of a lasting character. The build- 
ings of the Indian people had hitherto been of 
wood, and destitute of architectural pretension. 
A new and enduring architecture now succeeded. 

Culmination of Buddhism 

In the year 260 B.a Asoka, grandson of 
Chandra Gupta, ascended the throne of Behar. 
He ardently espoused Buddhism, and proclaimed 
it as a state religion. He caused many monu- 


ments to be set up bearing Buddhistic inscrip- 
tions, some of which, in the form of pillars, are 
still to be found at Delhi, Allahabad, and at 

Buddhism, reached its culmination in India in 
the seventh century A.r>. Its downfall followed 



Passing over the Bactrian and Scythian in- 
vasions, which took place during the period 
between 161 B.C. and 500 A.D., we now come 
to the Mohammedan period, which begins in 664 
A.D. with the first appearance in the Punjab of 
the armies of the Crescent. This was but thirty- 
two years after the death of the Prophet. One 
Afghan invasion followed another with little 
result until the reign of Sultan Mahmud, the 
"idol-smasher," whose name is still illustrious 
throughout Asia, although he was but the mon- 
arch of the petty kingdom of Ghazni. He led 
seventeen raids into India, finally subduing the 
"Punjab, which he annexed to his own province 
of Ghazni, and which thenceforth became Mo- 
hammedan. Mahmud came to the Mussulman 
throne in 99T A.D., and reigned thirty-three 
years. His fame among Mohammedans rests 
not alone upon his conquests, but upon his 
greatness as a champion of the faith and as a 
patron of learning. Mohammed of Ghor at his 
death, 1206, left all northern India under the 
rule of Mohammedan generals. His Indian vice- 


roy, Kutab-ud-din, proclaimed himself sovereign 
of India at Delhi, and founded the dynasty of 
the "Slave Kings," he having started in life as 
a Turki slave. His fame is preserved by the 
wonderful Kutab Minar, the tapering, sculp- 
tured shaft on the plain of Delhi. 

The Rajputs 

In the struggle with the Mussulman power in 
eastern India a valiant part was played by the 
warrior chiefs of pure Aryan descent known as 
the Rajputs, who, when conquered, withdrew 
to the regions bordering on the eastern desert of 
the Indus, and founded the province of Rajpu- 
tana, south of the Punjab- These proud, he- 
reditary chiefs, who could trace their ancestry 
unbroken to the Vedic age, defied the invaders of 
their country with stubborn courage, but in vain. 

The Mohammedan power grew and spread 
until, about 1320, it was extended through the 
Deccan, and all India was practically tributary 
to it, although its power was never so firmly 
planted in the south as in Hindustan. The 
native Hindus yielded reluctantly and slowly to 
the fierce proselyting of their conquerors, and 
never gave more than a nominal allegiance to 
Islam. Indeed, Aryan ideas and customs not 
only resisted Mohammedan influence more suc- 
cessfully than those of any other Asiatic race, 
but in the end Mohammedanism has become 
Hinduized in a marked degree. 



About the end of the fourteenth century a 
number of internal revolts had weakened the 
power of the Afghan kings of Delhi, and pre- 
pared the way for the success of another great 
invasion. In 1398 Timur, or Tamerlane, with a 
wild horde of Tatar tribes, swept down through 
the northwest passes of Afghanistan across the 
Punjab toward Delhi. His terrific, scourge-like 
descent, in which fire and sword consumed every- 
thing in his way, passed, leaving little perma- 
nent result. Late in the preceding century 
large numbers of Mughals (originally Mongols), 
who had unsuccessfully invaded the Punjab, 
had become subject to the Delhi kings, and 
been converted from their Tatar rites to Islam. 
These foreigners in India furnished the founda- 
tion upon which, in the sixteenth century, the 
great Mughal Empire was built. Babar, de- 
scendant of Tamerlane in the sixth degree, in 
the year 1526 repeated his invasion, and with 
the help of his followers and of resident Tatars 
established the Mughal (Mogul) Empire, with 
its seat at Agra. 

The Grand Mughals 

The famous Mughal dynasty, which like those 
preceding it was Mohammedan, covered a pe- 
riod of three hundred and thirty years, ending 
in 185T with the banishment of its last repre- 
sentative. The greatest name among its enaper- 


ors is that of Akbar the Great, grandson of Babar, 
who died in 1605 and is buried in a magnificent 
mausoleum near Agra. Contemporary with the 
reign of Elizabeth of England, the reign of tins 
Indian emperor was enlightened and progressive 
and offers much of picturesque interest to the 
student of history. Shah Jehan's reign was the 
climax of Mughal magnificence, I) elhi and Agra 
were his favorite seats ; at the former he placed 
his famous peacock throne; at the latter that 
consummate flower of Indian architecture, the 
Taj Mahal, the mausoleum of his favorite wife. 
The Taj, which has been described as a dream 
in marble, an edifice designed by Titans and 
finished by jewellers, was twenty-one years in 
building, during which time twenty thousand 
men were employed on it. The eyes of the 
architect' who designed it were put out by the 
despotic emperor that lie might never design 
another which could equal or surpass it. It 
cost over eight millions sterling. The reign of 
Aurangzeb, son of Shah Jehan, from 1(558 to 
1707, is the culmination of Mughal power and 
the beginning of its decay. Even to-day, in 
British India, official reports are wont to go 
back to the time of Aurangzeb. Romantic 
subjects for study are furnished by noted 
Mohammedan princesses, from Nur Mahal, the 
Light of the Palace, wife of Jehangir, and the 
adored wife and beautiful Christian daughter 
of Shah Jehan, down to the Rani of Jhansl, 


who fought "with matchless valor against the 
British in the Mutiny of 1857, and died in battle 
at the head of her troops. 

Among the great events which contributed to 
the disintegration of the Mughal Empire during 
the lifetime of Aurangzeb and a little later, 
were the descent of the Afghans under Nadir 
Shah, their Persian conqueror, in 1789 ; the for- 
mation of the Mahratta confederacy in the Dec- 
can, and the uprising of the Sikh sect in the 

Sack of Delhi 

Six times the Afghans swept down upon 
northern India with fearful massacres, returning 
through the famous Khyber Pass with booty 
amounting to thirty-two millions sterling, plun- 
dered during a fifty-eight days' sack of Delhi. 
The borderland between Afghanistan and India 
was ravaged and swept bare of inhabitants by 
these bloody and furious invaders. 

Mahrattas and Sikhs 

The Mahrattas (also spelled Maratha) and 
Sikhs remain to-day prime forces to be reckoned 
with in the administration of Indian affairs. 
The Mahrattas are a low caste Hindu race 
found in the region southeast of Bombay. Al- 
though rude in their civilization, they were 
fierce and formidable fighters. At this period 
their power rose enormously in the Deccan, and 
their generals carved out kingdoms for them- 


selves from the decaying empire of the Mughals. 
To this day the Mahrattas heave not forgotten 
the power they held a century ago, and they have 
never become reconciled to British dominion. 

The Sikhs, unlike the Mahrattas, are not a 
race, but a religious sect bound together by mil- 
itary organization and discipline. The name 
Sikh signifies disciple. They trace their origin 
to Nanak Shah, a Hindu reformer born near 
Lahore in 1469. Successive religious teachers, 
known as Gurus (equivalent to the Hebrew 
Rabbi), inculcated Nanak's doctrine of the abo- 
lition of caste, the unity of the Godhead, and 
the obligation of living a pure life. The ninth 
Guru in the Sikh succession attracted the atten- 
tion of the Emperor Aurangzeb, who was him- 
self a fanatical Mussulman. He imprisoned the 
Guru and tortured him so cruelly that the suf- 
ferer prevailed upon a fellow-prisoner to put him 
to death. Instead of checking the Sikh move- 
ment, the murder of the ninth Guru was the great 
turning-point in the history of the sect. Thence- 
forward the Sikhs became an organized, compact 
legion, sworn to die fighting in defence of their 
faith. u From Puritans they turned to Ironsides, 
praying and fighting with equal fervor." 

The Sikhs now number over two millions, 
scattered throughout India, especially in the 
British army. Their religion has degenerated 
into a hybrid between Hinduism and Mohamme- 
danism, with the Granth, their sacred book, as 


an idol. Atnritsar, their sacred city, is famous 
for the Golden Temple, where this book lies on 
its silken cushions, ever surrounded with pros- 
trate adorers. The warlike character of the 
Sikhs, and the key-position on the borders of 
the British Empire which they occupy, have 
led to a firm belief in many quarters that " the 
fate of British India is bound up with that of 

the Sikhs." 

Last of the Mughals 

To return to the Mughals: "The gigantic 
genius of Tamerlane," says Butler, ."and the 
distinguished talent of the great Akbar, with 
the magnificent taste of Jehan, have thrown a 
sort of splendor over the crimes and follies of 
the groat Mughals." . . . Bloody and barbaric 
despots were they at best. The last of the 
dynasty, Bahadur Shah, was discovered by the 
British in 1857, after the fall of Delhi, in hiding, 
" seated under a small tattered canopy, his per- 
son emaciated by indigence and infirmity, his 
countenance disfigured by the loss of his eyes, 
and bearing marks of extreme old age and 
settled melancholy." 

He was exiled as a state prisoner to Rangoon, 
and fills an unknown grave. 

The downfall of tho Mughal Empire ended 
the political power of Islam in India, but the 
king of England in his Indian Empire to-day 
rules over one-third of all the followers of 
Mohammed in the world. The fierce and re- 


sentful haughtiness of most Mussulmans in 
India shows that they cling to the memory 
of their seven hundred years of rule in the land 
before the hated English came and overthrew 
their power. The Hindus rather welcomed this 
event than otherwise, as the rule of the Mo- 
hammedans had been bitterly cruel and oppres- 
sive, and they had never amalgamated with the 

conquered people. 


A brief survey of the religion of Mohammed 
must be taken at this point. 

Here we have to do with the most modern 
of all the religions which can be called world 
religions, for the date of Mohammed's birth is 
placed at 570 A.B. and of his flight to Medina 
(the Hegira) at 622. It is substantially true 
that Islam is little else than a spurious form of 
Judaism borrowed from Jewish exiles, with such 
modifications as suited it to Arabia, plus the 
important addition of the prophetic mission of 
Mohammed, and the consuming lust of con- 
quest. The Koran, which takes the place of the 
Hebrew Old Testament, is a rather poor per- 
formance as a Bible, rhetorical rather than 
poetic, ranking perhaps with the Apocryphal 
books of the Old Testament Canon. 

Mohammed and the Koran 

Mohammed, a camel-driver of Mecca, was 
from his birth a victim to epilepsy and hysteria, 


the paroxysms o which contributed greatly to 
his success in an age when such seizures were 
looked upon as supernatural possession. He 
early began to have visions of angels, especially 
of Gabriel, who communicated supposedly di- 
vine truth to him in a miraculous manner, 
communications usually accompanied by convul- 
sions on the part of the Prophet. In this way, 
little by little, the Koran was made up, and it is 
the medley which we might expect. 

Dictated from time to time by Mohammed to 
his disciples, it was by them either treasured 
in their memories, or written down on shoul- 
der-bones of mutton or on oyster shells, on bits 
of wood or tablets of stone, which, being thrown 
pell-mell into boxes and jumbled together, were 
never arranged until after the Prophet's death. 
The one hundred and fourteen suras, or chap- 
ters, of which the Koran consists, are now 
placed in the order of their respective lengths, 
the longest first, the shortest last: an ar- 
rangement as simple as It is illogical. Each 
sura begins with the words, "In the name of 
the merciful and compassionate God,'* 

Persecuted and hated by the ruling tribe in 
his native city, Mecca, there is reason to sup- 
pose that Mohammed, at this period of his life, 
was a sincere though morbid fanatic,- No 
imagination could have dreamed of the tremen- 
dous success which was so near at hand. His 
followers were few and insignificant. 



Medina, north of Mecca, in the same prov- 
ince of Hedjaz, chanced to be at the time a 
centre of numerous and powerful Jews, who 
were habitually looking forward to the coming 
of a prophet like Moses. Mohammed, whose 
religion at this time was a kind of modified 
Judaism, with its teachings continually drawn 
from the Old Testament and the Talmud, per- 
ceived the fact that Medina offered a strategic 
point for the culture of a new religious move- 
ment, which should appeal to Jews as founded 
upon their own Scriptures, and non-idolatrous, 
and at the same time make proselytes among 
idolaters, as the Jewish religion could not do by 
reason of its exclusive rites of circumcision, etc. 

The Hegira and Moslem Conquest 

To Medina, therefore, on the 20th of June, 
622 A.B., the prophet betook himself, preceded 
secretly by his disciples in small parties. 

From this day, the day of the Hegira, the 
Moliammedan era dates. 

Success was sudden, almost miraculous; but as 
Ms fortune rose, the character of Mohammed sank 
in the scale. Cruelty, passion, and plunder now 
became the rule of life with him and Ms followers; 
the prophet was lost in the merciless military 
conqueror. It has been well said that Mo- 
hammed's only element of greatness was success. 

In eighteen years all Syria, with Jerusalem, 


Damascus, and Aleppo, had fallen before the 
Mussulman, and Egypt and Persia were con- 
quered. All history presents no movement so 
dramatic, so startling, so appalling even, as the 
Saracen uprising. 

The followers of the Prophet, coveting the 
death in battle which exalted them to martyr- 
dom and a sensual paradise, were fired by a 
fanatical courage which made their onward 
^course for a time irresistible. In Europe, the 
firm resistance of Charles Martel, in 732, at 
Tours, turned the tide back upon Asia. In 
western Asia, Islam has held its own through 
many centuries ; but as its extension is wholly 
dependent upon military conquest, it has been 
checked where this has ceased. 

It has been claimed that the spread of Mo- 
hammedanism in India is far more rapid than 
that of Christianity ; but, in point of fact, its 
growth there is very slow, as it only keeps pace 
with the general increase of population. 

CJiaracteristics of Religion of Mohammed 

It can be said in favor of Islam that it is 
a great advance upon Brahmanism and Buddh- 
ism, in that it holds neither pantheism, poly- 
theism, atheism, nor idolatry ; that it is minus 
the unwholesome tendencies of caste, of a cor- 
rupt priesthood, and of a belief in transmigra- 
tion of souls. The Mussulman believes in one 
God, even Jehovah; but his monotheism is 

52 xcrx 

"the worst form of monotheism which, has ever 
existed " ; and, it may be added, his religion 
presents the most unbroken front to Christian- 
ity which it anywhere encounters. The fol- 
lower of the Prophet is forbidden the use of 
wine and the practice of gambling, but polyg- 
amy and concubinage are sanctioned explicitly 
by the Koran, and his life as well as his reli- 
gion is steeped in sensualism. He is a slave 
owner and a slave trader ; fierce and cruel 
beyond belief, destitute of charity and good 
will to men, his prime duty indeed being to 
slay infidels. Fatalism is woven into the tex- 
ture of his being. "Thus doth God cause to 
err whom he pleases, and directeth whom 
he pleases," says Sura, xx. 4. As "All is 
Maya" (illusion) is the watchword of the 
Hindu, so u Kismet " (it is fated) is the watch- 
word of the Mussulman. 

" As a social system," writes Stanley Poole, 
" Islam is a complete failure ; by degrading 
women it has degraded each successive genera- 
tion of their children down an increasing scale 
of infamy and corruption until it seems almost 
impossible to reach a lower level of vice." 

This is the religion which to-day in India 
stands numerically next to Hinduism, number- 
ing more than fifty-seven million adherents. 
There are those who prophesy that the twen- 
tieth century will witness in India a tremen- 
dous struggle between Islam, Buddhism, and 


Christianity the three religions which are 
striving for universal supremacy, the only 
religions which are not racial. 

The Parsis 

The conquering progress of Mohammedan- 
ism in the eighth century brought about as 
one result the immigration to the western 
coast of India of large numbers of Persians, 
or Parsis, followers of Zoroaster, driven from 
their own land by the fiery persecution of the 
Mussulmans. The descendants of these early 
colonizers are to be found among the mer- 
chant-princes, bankers, and financial operators 
of Bombay and all India, A financial failure 
among them is felt on every bourse in Europe. 
As the religion of Zoroaster, although not an 
Indian religion, is now professed only by the 
Parsis of India and their brethren in Persia, 
we must consider it briefly in this study. 

Starting in the 'Vedic period from the same 
primitive conceptions of divinity peculiar to 
the Aryan stock, the religion of the Zend- 
Avesta (the sacred book of the Parsis) soon 
diverged widely from that of the Vedas. 
Each, however, retains much in common with 
the other. There can be little doubt that Ahu- 
ra-Mazda, the supreme divinity of the Avesta, 
was originally one with the Varuna of the 
Vedas. Indra and Mitra appear in both sys- 
tems. Both regard fire as divine, dread defile- 


ment from contact with tlie dead, and In both 
the worship of the soma juice is inculcated. 
There is, however, despite the superficial resem- 
blances, a profound disparity between Hindu- 
ism and Zoroastrianism, so that each can say to 
the other, 6t Your gods are my demons." The 
latter, like Buddhism, is an essentially moral 
religion ; but the method of Zoroaster was an 
eternal battle for good against evil, that of 
Buddha a struggle for complete self-effacement. 
The Parsi religion, let it be remembered, is, in 
its essence, the religion of Cyrus the Great, of 
whom the prophet Isaiah makes Jehovah say, 
" I have raised up one from the north, and he 
shall come ; from the rising of the sun shall he 
call upon my name." It was the only religion 
of the ancient world which could be in any real 
sense called monotheism ; and yet it too resolved 
itself into an indiscriminate worship of natural 
forces, and especially into lire and sun worship. 
The distinguishing theory of the Persian re- 
ligion is its dualism; its belief in a great Spirit 
of Good and an equally great Spirit of Evil. In 
the beginning the Eternal, Supreme, and Infi- 
nite One produced these two other great divine 
beings : the first, the King of Light, is called 
Ormuzd ; the second, the King of Darkness, is 


Status of Parsi Women 

The Parsi religion commands the especial 
consideration of women in the home as a 


religious obligation. Children are the crown 
of glory, and thus the mother became in the 
Zend-Avesta the "holy, mystic one," through 
whom the past, present, "and future glory of the 
father was secured. She was regarded as the 
44 goddess of abundance, the irradiator of hearth 
and home." 

As a consequence of this conception, the Parsi 
women of India occupy a much more honorable 
position than either their Hindu or Moham- 
medan sisters. They are refined and intelligent, 
and enjoy, indeed, almost as much freedom and 
respect as do women in Europe. 

The number of Parsis now resident in India is 
not great, probably not more than ninety thou- 
sand, but they form, intellectually and morally, 
a distinctly superior class in the population. 


Near the close of the fifteenth century there 
began a series of European invasions of India, 
markedly different from those of Persians, 
Tatars, Afghans, and Arabians. The new in- 
vaders came ostensibly for peaceful commerce 
rather than for bloody conquest, territorial 
aggrandizement, or political power. Only four 
hundred years, however, were required from the 
first of these innocent invasions to reduce all 
India, from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin, to 
the position of a dependency of the most remote 
of these European powers, a power whose 

56 xra: CHRI8TI 

own proper territory is less than that of a 
single province of Hindustan. 

Through the Middle Ages little was known 
in Europe concerning India. It was regarded 
as a mysterious mine of fabulous riches and 
splendor. Certain Italian cities, notably Venice, 
sustained trade with the far-famed golden land, 
but it was dimly known to Europe at large, 
save as some adventurous traveller like Marco 
Polo returned from it with marvellous tales. 

The Portuguese in India 

"When, in 1492, Columbus sailed from Lis- 
bon, he sailed, not for the purpose of discover- 
ing a new continent, but a new route to India. 
He found America instead. Five years later 
another adventurous Portuguese, Vasco da 
Gama, embarked for India, whose western 
coast he touched after an eleven months' 
voyage. Like the European explorers who 
followed him, Da Gama entered India from 
the south, whereas the military invasions had 
all been made from the north. 

Landing at Calicut, on the southeast coast, the 
Portuguese found favor with the native prince or 
Rajah. Returning to his own country after six 
months, Da Gama bore from him the following 
letter to his king : " Vasco da Gama, a nobleman 
of thy household, has visited my kingdom and 
has given me great pleasure. In my kingdom 
there is abundance of cinnamon, cloves, ginger, 


pepper, and precious stones. What I seek from 
thy country is gold, silver, coral, and scarlet." 
For exactly a century, from 1500 to 1600, the 
Portuguese held a monopoly of Oriental trade, 
with their seat of power at Goa. 

The Dutch in India 

The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, by 
which the Spanish and Portuguese were driven 
off the seas, changed the current of events, and 
the Dutch and English soon appeared in East- 
ern waters to compete for the prizes of Indian 
commerce. The Portuguese were rapidly 
driven off the field and expelled from all their 
Indian territory save an area of one thousand 
square miles on the west coast. Successive 
private expeditions were made from Holland to 
India in the latter years of the sixteenth century, 
and in 1602 all these interests were merged in 
the "Dutch East India Company." This was 
the heyday of Dutch maritime supremacy. At 
about the date, 1619, when they laid the foun- 
dation of the city of Batavia in Java, the seat 
of their government in the East Indies, the 
Dutch had discovered the cpast of Australia 
and were founding in North America the city 
of Manhattan, now New York. 

The Dutch remained powerful in India until 
about 1800, when England won away all their 
colonies, even Java, which has since been 
restored, and Holland now controls no territory 
on the mainland of India. 


The French in India 

France also was represented. As early as 
1604 French companies liacl been formed and 
ships sent out to engage in traffic with India, 
but it was not until 1664 that Colbert, successor 
to the great Mazarin, succeeded in a scheme for 
enriching France by fostering her Oriental 
commerce. A great capitalized company was 
formed, and an adventurer named Cason was de- 
spatched to India as director-general of French 
commerce. He succeeded in getting a tempo- 
rary foothold in southern India and Ceylon. 

The British in India 

, It was in the year 1600 that England stretched 
out a strong hand to grasp her share of the riches 
of India, and completed the circle of hungry 
European invaders, who, for a centtiry, hovered 
around the great passive Indian peninsula, like 
rapacious birds of prey around some prone and 
helpless giant. More restrained, better civil- 
ized, more humane than the Tatar tribes and the 
hosts of Islam, the European invaders came to 
India with motives no less selfish and mercenary, 
for loveless trade, is "only war grown miserly." 
Great Britain owes her imperial crown of 
India in the last analysis to a rise in the price 
of black pepper in the year 1599. The Dutch, 
who preceded the English in the spice traffic 
with India by some years, formed a monopoly 
on black pepper in the year mentioned, and 


raised the price per pound from three English 
shillings to eight. 

Origin of tJie JEast India Company 

" This was too much for the Lord Mayor and 
merchants of London, who resolved to form an 
association of their own for direct trade with 
India, and induced Queen Elizabeth to send Sir 
John Mildenhall to India by way of Constanti- 
nople to the Mughal, Akbar the Great, to secure 
privileges for the new company. On the last 
day of the year 1600, in the forty-third year 
of her reign, Queen Elizabeth signed the first 
charter creating c One Body Corporate and 
Politick in Deed and in Name, by the name of 
the Governor and Company of Merchants of 
London trading with the East Indies.'" 

The new East India Company's charter pro- 
vided only " that they at their own Adventures, 
Costs, and Charges, as well for the Honor of this 
our Realm of England as for the increase of our 
Navigation and Advancement of Trade of Mer- 
chandize with our said Realms and the Domin- 
ions of the same, might adventure to set forth 
one or more Voyages ... in. the Countries and 
Parts of Asia and Africa ... to the benefit of 
our Commonwealth." 

" A circumstance most flattering to the medi- 
cal profession," said Sir Henry Halford many 
years after, " is the establishment of the East 
India Company's power on the coast of Coro- 


man del, procured from the Great Mogul (Shah 
Jehan) in gratitude for the official help of Dr. 
Gabriel Boughton in a case of great distress. 
It seems that in the year 1636 one of the prin- 
cesses of the imperial family had been dreadfully 
burnt, and a messenger was sent to Surat to 
desire the assistance of one of the English sur- 
geons there, when Boughton proceeded forth- 
with to Delhi, and performed the cure. On the 
minister of the Great Mogul asking him what 
his master could do for him to manifest his 
gratitude for so important a service, Boughton 
answered, with a disinterestedness, a generosity, 
and a patriotism beyond all praise, 6 Let my 
nation trade with yours.' 'Be it so,' was the 
reply. A portion of the coast was marked out 
for the resort of English ships, and all duties 
were compromised for a small sum of money." 
From this as a beginning dates the famous 
career of the Old English Company, In the 
next twelve years twelve voyages were under- 
taken, and the envoy of the company was 
graciously received at the court of the Groat 
Mughal. Soon after important factories were 
established at Surat, Masulipatam, and Hugli. 
Surat became the seat of the western presi- 
dency and remained so until 1684, when this 
was transferred to Bombay. Bombay was 
ceded to the British crown as a part of the 
dower of the Portuguese princess, Catherine 
of Braganza, in 1661. The site of Calcutta 


named for a shrine of Kali) was 
acquired by purchase in 1695. 

Holland and Portugal were soon crippled and 
outclassed by the English in the race. Mean- 
while the Mughal Empire was falling to pieces, 
under puppet kings, successors to Aurangzeb, 
while the Afghans ravaged it from the north, 
and on one side the Mahratta power and on the 
other the Sikhs were closing in upon it. There 
was small chance to notice the insignificant 
English traders who were quietly establishing 
themselves in their* three ports, Madras, Bom- 
bay, and Calcutta. The French, meanwhile, 
held Pondicherry and adjacent territory in the 

In 1698 the Old English Company had lost 
its charter, and in 1702 a new company had 
been formed known as "The Honorable East 
India Company." 

The French and English remained for a gener- 
ation trading side by side in south India, both 
paying rent to the Great Mughal. On the death 
of Aurangzeb, in 1707, the whole of south India 
had become independent of Delhi, and numerous 
semi-independent native states were formed. 
The Mahrattas, with Poona as capital and resi- 
dence of the Peshwa, were the dominant power. 

Olive and Dupleix 

In 1744 war broke out between the English 
and French in Europe. The governor of Pon- 

62 zujs: C&RISTI 

dicherry, Dupleix, had a secret ambition to 
found a vast French empire in India. His 
English, rival, Olive, was a young writer in 
Madras. They took up the cause of their 
respective nations. Hostilities between the 
French and English in south India therefore, 
in which each was supported by different states, 
continued from 1746 to 1761, when Pondicherry 
capitulated and the French were victoriously 
driven out. This, it will be observed, was the 
time when all the northern lands of the old 
Mughal Empire lay bleeding under the scourge 
of the Afghan invasions. 

The Black Hole of Calcutta 

Meanwhile Olive had gone to England, where 
he had been made a lieutenant-colonel in the 
British army and governor of Madras. Re- 
turning to India, he landed on the 20th of 
June, 1756. This was the day of the horrible 
tragedy of the Black Hole of Calcutta, in which 
one hundred and twenty-three English men 
and women, taken prisoners in an attack on 
Fort William by the native Bengal prince, died 
in a singL night, locked into a stifling garrison 
prison eighteen feet square. 

Olive, in Madras, upon learning of this horror, 
sailed promptly to the mouth of the Ganges, 
recovered Calcutta from the natives, and peace 
might have been established had not the English 
general, in defiance of the neutrality of Bengal, 


seized just at this time upon a French settle- 
ment. The Bengal government offered battle, 
and Olive marched out to the grove of Plassey, 
seventy miles north of Calcutta, and won a 
great victory -which suddenly threw the over- 
lordship of the rich and important province of 
Bengal into English hands. Thus it came about 
that "the daring of a merchant clerk made a 
company of English traders the sovereigns of 
Bengal, and opened that wondrous career of 
conquest which has added the Indian peninsula, 
from Ceylon to the Himalayas, to the dominions 
of the British crown." 


The battle of Plassey was fought on June 23, 
1757, a date which has been adopted by history 
as the beginning of the British Empire. By 
this it is not meant that on this day all India 
fell under British rule, for not even of the 
province of Bengal would this have been true. 
The battle of Plassey does, however, mark the 
point when the British knew themselves to be 
in India for conquest as well as for commerce, 
for empire not merely for trade. Their su- 
premacy in India rests upon the same basis as 
that of the Moslems and the Mughals, although 
its results ai;e far more beneficent, viz., the 
right of conquest, and as such is frankly 
entered in all official statistics. 


Policy of the JSast India Company 

Unlike the followers of Mohammed, however, 
who nominally subjugated India in the name of 
the one true God and to spread their religion, 
Englishmen at this time explicitly forswore all 
religious motives or proselyting purposes. Up 
to the time of Clive, the East India Company 
had tolerated and befriended Christian mis- 
sionaries* Afterward, as it grew in power and 
the dream of empire loomed large, its repre- 
sentatives adopted the policy of forcibly keep- 
ing Christian missionaries out of the land and 


encouraging the native idolatries. English 
soldiers were even obliged at times to make 
a show of reverence before especially sacred 
heathen shrines. 

Clive and Warren Hastings, at least, were de- 
liberate conquerors, and theirs was no acciden- 
tal policy when they laid the foundations of 
England's supremacy amid the chaotic ruins 
of the last Mughal's empire. They builded no 
better than they knew. Lord Wellesley (1798- 
1805) firmly laid down the unchangeable pur- 
pose of England to hold complete supremacy m 
the peninsula, which has inspired all later policy. 
Circumstances conspired to make the work an 
easy one. To a great extent the English caused 
the native factions to do their fighting for them, 
pitting one against another, and cleverly turn- 
ing the result to their own advantage, 


Progress of Subjugation 

" The British won India," says Sir William 
Hunter, " not from the Mughals, but from the 
Hindus. Before we appeared as conquerors, 
the Mughal Empire had broken up. Our final 
wars were neither with the Delhi ting nor with 
his revolted governors, but with the two Hindu 
confederacies, the Marhattas and the Sikhs . Our 
last Marhatta war dates as late as 1818, and the 
Sikh confederation was overcome only in 1848." 

This is a condensed summary of the long 
wars which followed Plassey. One governor- 
general succeeded another, each adding territory 
or strengthening the British government in its 
foothold. It was not until 1828, when Lord 
Bentinck came into office, that the nobler con- 
ception of a government /or the good of the gov- 
erned can be said to have really gained ground. 
Lord Bentinck's statue at Calcutta bears an 
inscription from the pen of Lord Macaulay, 
setting forth the unselfish benevolence of his 
rule. He suppressed suttee (the burning of 
widows on the funeral pyres of their husbands) 
and stamped out the horrible practices of the 
thugs. (These were hereditary assassins, who 
made strangling their profession, travelling in 
bands, disguised as merchants or pilgrims, and 
were sworn together by an oath based on the 
rites of the bloody goddess, Kali, of whom they 
were devotees.) 


The Punjab was annexed in 1849 and Burma 
in 1852 by Lord Dalhousie, after long and 
tedious wars running back to 1820, when 
Assam, which had been seized by the Burman 
king, was ceded to the British and became a 
state of India. Lord Dalhousie completed the 
fabric of British rule in India, finally adding 
Oudh and Central Provinces, besides many 
minor states, before his retirement in 1856. 

Lord Dalhousie was succeeded by Lord Can- 
ning, later known, to his honor, as " Clemency " 
Canning. At a banquet given the latter in 
London just before he sailed, he uttered these 
prophetic words : " I wish for a peaceful term 
of office. But I cannot forget that in the sky 
of India, serene as it is, a small cloud may arise, 
no larger than a man's "hand, but which, grow- 
ing larger and larger, may at last threaten to 
burst and overwhelm us with ruin." 

The Sepoy Mutiny 

Within the year the great mutiny of the 
Sepoys, in which Mohammedan and Hindu 
alike engaged, occurred, and the whole Ganges 
valley rose in rebellion against the English. 
The thrilling story of this awful rebellion, 
occurring precisely a century after the battle 
of Plassey, and nearly contemporaneously with 
our own. War of Secession, cannot be recounted 
here. It began at Meerut, May 10, 1857, and 
a summer of horrors followed. It centred 


around the cities of Cawnpore, Lucknow, and 
Delhi, and its most dramatic scenes, famous in 
song and story, are connected with the heroism 
of John Nicholson, Havelock and his " Saints," 
the Fall of Delhi, the Relief of Lucknow after 
eighty-five days of siege, and Jessie Brown's 
never-to-be-forgotten cry, " Dinna ye hear the 
slogan?" The civilized world still shudders 
at " the awful silence of Cawnpore," when, after 
eleven days of hard fighting, Havelock entered 
the city and found not one of his countrymen 
left to receive him. Two days earlier, July 15, 
every English man, woman, and child, nine 
hundred in all, had been slaughtered, and two 
hundred of them hurled, whether dead or still 
alive, into a well. The war which followed 
this awful opening dragged on for many months 
longer, before the Mutiny was wholly quelled. 
To-day, in Cawnpore, a garden of roses blooms 
on the spot where that awful house of death 
stood, and over the covered well stands in white 
marble the form of the angel of peace. 

Causes of the Mutiny 

Precisely what led to the great Mutiny will 
perhaps never b.e determined. Wise men differ. 
Said Lord Lawrence, "I believe that what more 
tended to stir up the Indian Mutiny than any 
one thing was the habitual cowardice of Great 
Britain as to her own religion." Others attrib- 
uted it to the inherent disparity between the 


white man and the Oriental, which causes an 
inevitable distrust. Deep below the surface, 
doubtless, was the smouldering, inevitable 
resentment of the conquered toward the 
conquerors, and the inborn dread of dena- 
tionalization. On the surface was the alarm 
caused in the native mind by the rapid multi- 
plication of telegraph wires and steam engines, 
and other tokens of a foreign civilization. Last 
of all, as the fuse which fires the mine, was a 
rumor running like wildfire through the Bengal 
army that the cartridges of a new set dealt out 
to them were greased with the fat of cows, the 
animal sacred to the Hindu, and with the fat of 
swine, the animal unclean alike to Hindu and 
Mohammedan. Did not this mean that their 
most sacred scruples were to be trampled upon ? 
their caste broken ? 

Perhaps, as we read the story of the Sepoy 
Rebellion, we find it less surprising that such 
an event happened once than that it has not 
happened many times, with a population of 
two hundred and eighty-seven millions, and 
a standing army of but two hundred and 
thirty thousand, more than two-thirds of which 
are composed of natives. 

Consequences of the Mutiny 

The Mutiny led to the dissolution of the East 
India Company and the transfer of the adminis- 
tration of Indian affairs to the British crown. 


On November 1, 1858, at a great darlar (court 
reception) held at Allahabad, Lord Canning 
gave the Royal Proclamation, which announced 
that the Queen of England had herself assumed 
the government of India. Nineteen years later, 
in January, 1877, with all the scenic effect of 
Oriental display and theatrical magnificence, 
at the ancient Mughal capital, Delhi, Queen 
Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India. 

Thus has culminated the latest invasion of 
India, begun in 1600 for commerce, continued 
for conquest, resulting, let us hope, in the twen- 
tieth century in a stable, enlightened, and Chris- 
tian commonwealth for the conquered people. 

Character of British Rule 

The British government has proceeded on the 
basis that it cannot introduce Christianity, but 
must rely on secular education and the arts and 
industries of the western world for the regen- 
eration of the Indian peoples, thus seeking to 
form a new nation with a Christian civiliza- 
tion built up on a heathen foundation. The 
annual grants of the East India Company to 
heathen temples in some cases are still con- 
tinued under government guarantee. To many 
thoughtful minds Great Britain is trying a dan- 
gerous experiment a policy freighted with 
peril; a system, one has said, which "carries 
with it its own nemesis." 

The character of British rule in India has, 


however, been ennobled by the names of many 
enlightened Christian statesmen from the days 
of Lord Beutinck down to the present time. 
Lord Dalkousie, although forced by the exi- 
gencies of the time (1848-1856) to embark on 
a policy of annexation and to enter on wars 
with the Sikhs and the Burmese, was a high- 
minded statesman, a man of sensitive conscience, 
and a lover of peace. His deepest interest lay 
in the advancement of the moral and material 
welfare of India. No branch of administration 
escaped his reforming hand. Sir John Law- 
rence's name will be held in everlasting re- 
membrance in the Punjab for Ms noble 
measures to relieve the famine sufferers in, 
1866-1869. He embodied what the natives of 
India most fear and most respect, power, 
courage, kindness, and inexorable justice. He 
first laid down the principle that the officers of 
the government should be held personally re- 
sponsible for taking every means to avoid death 
by starvation. Other illustrious names might 
be cited of those who kept steadily in view the 
theory that government was " for the good of 

the governed." 

British India 

As now constituted British India consists of 
the following twelve provinces : Bengal, Assam, 
Ajmere, North West Provinces, Oudh, Pun- 
jab, Central Provinces, Berar, Bombay, Coorg, 
Burma, Madras. Besides these which are di- 


rectly under British, rule there are several hun- 
dred "feudatory states" which are ruled under 
JBritish government by their own hereditary 
princes. Of these the largest are Haidarabad, 
better known as " the Nizam's Dominions," and 
Eajputana, each with a population of nearly 
twelve millions. 

The government of the Indian Empire is pri- 
marily in the hands of a secretary of state, but 
it is administered by a governor-general, or, as 
lie is now more commonly called, a viceroy, 
appointed by the British crown and assisted 
by a council or cabinet of six members. The 
usual term of office for the viceroy and his 
cabinet is five years. 

The supreme government has its official seat 
in Calcutta ; but early in April it is customary 
for the viceroy and his cabinet to remove to 
Simla, the famous resort in the spurs of the 
Himalayas, for the hot season, that is, until late 

Under the viceroy are governors, as of Ma- 
dras, Calcutta, and Bombay; lieutenant-gov- 
ernors, as of Burma, Bengal, and the Punjab, 
and another class of subordinate rulers called 
chief commissioners, as of Assam. Below these 
are a large number of collectors, deputies, magis- 
trates, and minor administrative officials. The 
unit of administration is the District, the whole 
number of which in British India is about 240, 
varying greatly in size and in number of inhab- 

72 icrx CJIBISTI 

itants. The average area of a district is 3778 
square miles; the average population 802,927 
souls. Civil law is administered with marked 
justice. The final appeal Is to the privy council 
of England. The district ofBcer is "the back- 
bone of administrative India." 

The total population of British India by the 
latest census is 288,000,000. 

The present viceroy is Lord Curzon, -whose 
term began in 1899. Lady Curzon is an American 
woman, formerly Miss Mary Leiter of Chicago. 

To sum tip in the sententious language of 
Itobert E. Speer : "India was not a nation. 
Therefore Great Britain conquered it and has 
held it. Great Britain is making it a nation. 
What will be the result? " 




We hold ourselves bound to the natives of our Indian 
territories by the same obligations of duty which, bind 
us fco all other subjects ; and those obligations, by the 
blessing of Almighty God, we shall faithfully and con- 
scientiously fulfil. Firmly relying ourselves on the truth 
of Christianity, and acknowledging with gratitude the 
solace of religion, we disclaim alike the right and the 
desire to impose our convictions on any of our subjects. 
We declare it to be our royal will and pleasure that none 
be in any wise favored, none molested or disquieted, by 
reason of their religious faith or observances ; but that 
all shall alike enjoy the equal and impartial protection 
of the law ; and we do strictly charge and enjoin all those 
who may be in authority under us, that they abstain from 
all interference with the religious belief or worship of 
any of our subjects, on pain of our highest displeasure. 

Of the Mutiny it is truly said that it divides all 
Anglo-Indian history into two parts. Understand the 
Mutiny, and you understand India. . . . The East India 
Company had been sowing the wind ; it was now to reap 
the whirlwind. It had leagued itself with idolatry ; out 
of this unholy alliance came its death. 



If one could look down upon India from a balloon, 
one would see that it was more or less divided into three 
regions. The first is the Himalayas, the second is the 


plains of Hindustan, the third is the Deccan, a great 
three-sided tableland which covers the southern half of 
India. It slopes upward from the plains, and its north- 
ern wall and buttresses (the Vindhya Mountains) stood 
in former times as a vast barrier of mountain and jungle 
between northern and southern India, greatly increasing 
the difficulty of welding the whole into one empire, until 
at length pierced by road and rail. The eastern and 
western sides of the Deccan are known as Ghats, In the 
Bombay presidency the Ghats vise in magnificent preci- 
pices and headlands almost out of the ocean, and truly 
look like colossal landing stairs irom the sea. The east- 
ern and western Ghats meet at an angle near Cape 
Comorin at the southern extremity, and so complete the 
sides of the tableland. ISABEL SAVORY. 

The front door of India, Bombay, is magnificent; 
the back door, the Khyber Pass, is shabby. Out of the 
rose hedges of Peshawar a dust-yellow road carries you 
through, a dust-gray plain, heading for dust-drab moun- 
tains. India seems worn out, giving up the weary effort 
to be soil, reverting limply to rock, sand, mud. 

Anew India the Deccan. Uneven, colorless table- 
land, undecided shapes of colorless mountains, gemmed 
here and there with dazzling green and scarlet that is 
the type of the whole vast triangle. 

Haidarabad not so much a city as a masque of 
mediaeval Asia. Everywhere I breathed Islam and the 
Middle Ages. Think of the sheer joy of riding on an 
elephant through the streets of a city where they still 
maintain a royal regiment of Amazons. 


The white dust in the highways and the stenches in 
the byways are a very present evil ; with the flies, mos- 
quitoes, weary heat, and endless glare, they swell the items 
in the long bill which the white man pay.s for serving 
Ms grim stepmother country, ISABKL SAVORY. 


Bombay is half Oriental, half Occidental. It has the 
rush of Chicago, the fashion of Paris, and the cosmopoli- 
tanism of London. II. C. MABIE. 

Stand on the Iluglili bridge at Calcutta at sunset, on 
the east side the factory smoke lying in a sullen bank 
under the glowing scarlet ; on the west, the corn-field of 
masts, and the funnel smoke and the city smoke foul- 
ing the ineffable stillness of Indian evening, and the 
Bengalis crossing the bridge. On one side going into 
Calcutta, on the other coming out, an endless drove of 
moving, white-clothed people, never varying in thickness, 
never varying in pace, never stopping, no interval, just 
moving, moving like an endless belt running on a wheel. 
Just population that is Bengal. 

Madras! At last here is the India that was expected- 
the India of our childhood and of our dreams. The air 
is moist, the sky intensely blue. You drive on broad 
roads of red sand, through colonnades of red-berried 
banyans and thick groves of dipping palms, by pools and 
streams of soft green water. And the people are just as 
you have always seen them in your mind naked above 
the loins, petticoated below, any color from ochre to 
umber . . . lithe little coolies in loin-cloths, they pass 
by in a perpetual panorama of popular India the India 
you knew before you came. I am convinced that Little 
Henry's Bearer was a Madras!. 

India is amazing and stupefying at the first glance, 
and amazing and stupefying it remains to the last. . . . 
It strikes you as very, very old burned out, sapless, 
tired. Its people for the most part are small, languid, 
effeminate. . . . Everywhere the same grotesque con- 
tradictions splendor and squalor, divinity and dirt, 
superstition and manliness. The western mind can 
make nothing of it, cannot bring it into focus. You. 


simply hold your head, and say that this is the East, and 
you are of the West. 

And the Himalayas and the eternal snows? Up and 
up I toiled. Then at a sudden turn of the winding 
ascent I saw the summit of Kinchin junga just, the 
summit, poised in the blue, shining and rejoicing in the 
sunrise. And as I climbed, other peaks rose into sight 
below and beside him, all dazzling white, mounting and 
mounting the higher I mounted, every instant more huge 
and towering and stately, boring the sky. ... It was 
not a range, but a country of mountains. ... It was 
the end of the world a sheer rampart, which forbade 
the fancy of anything beyond. G. W. STKKVJSNS. 

Go to India. The Taj alone is worth the journey. 


(June 21, 1887) 

By the well where the bullocks go, 

Silent and blind and slow, 

By the field where the young corn dies, 

In the face of the sultry skies, 

They have heard, as the dull earth hears, 

The voice of the wind of an hour, 

The sound of. the great Queen's voice : 

"My God hath given me years, 

Hath granted dominion and power ; 

And I bid you, O land, rejoice." 

And the ploughman settles the share 
More deep in the grudging clod ; 
For he saitli: te The wheat is my care, 
And the rest is the will of God. 


He sent the Mahratta spear 

As ITe sendeth the rain. 

And the HleoJi, in the fated year, 

Broke the spear In twain. 

And was broken in turn. Who knows 

How our lords make strife ? 

Tt is good that the young wheat grows, 

For the bread Is life." 

Then, far and near, as the twilight drew, 

Hissed up to the scornfnl dark 

Great serpents, blazing, of red and "blue. 

That rose and faded, and rose anew, 

That the land might wonder and mark. 

" To-day is a day of days," they said ; 

" Make merry, O i>eoplo, all 1 " 

And the plough man listened and bowed his head: 

" To-day and tomorrow God's will," he said, 

As he trimmed the lamps on the wall. 

" He sendeth us years that are good, 

As He sendeth fche dearth. 

He giveth to each man his food, 

Or her food to the earth. 

Our kings and onr queens are afar, 

On their peoples be peace, 

God bringeth the rain to the Bar, 

That our cattle increase." 

And the ploughman settles the share 

More deep in the sun-dried clod, 

" Mogul, Mahratta., and Mlech from the north, 

And White Queen over the seas 

God raiseth them up and driveth them forth 

As the dust of the ploughshare flies In the breeze ; 

But the wheat and the cattle are all my care, 

And the rest is the will of God." 



The white* invasion has done India good jusfc in 
measure as it has been accompanied by genuine, religious 
influence. So far as it has been commercial and indif- 
ferent merely, it has done harm. England has unselfishly 
done for India more, I think, than any other nation 
would do, but she has failed to give her an upward im- 
pulse. . . The only salvation of India, even from an 
economic point of view, in the opinion of those who have 
longest and most deeply studied it, is its Christianizatiou. 
Let England inspire India with a veritable Christian 
faith, and nine-tenths of the present difficulties would 
spontaneously cease. JULIAN HAWTUOKNE. 


If the feeling of a common nationality began to exist 
in India only feebly if, without inspiring any active 
desire to drive out the foreigner, it only created a notion 
that it was shameful to assist him in maintaining his 
dominion from that day, almost, our empire would 
cease to exist ; for of the army by which it is garrisoned, 
two-thirds consist of native soldiers. ... So long as the 
population has not formed the habit of criticising their 
government, whatever it may be, and rebelling against 
it, the government of India from England is possible. . . . 
On the other hand, if this feeling ever does spring up ; 
if India does begin to breathe as a national whole,' and 
our own rule is perhaps doing more than ever was done 
by former governments to make this possible, then the 
feeling would soon gain the native army, and on the 
native army we ultimately depend. , . . The moment a 
mutiny is threatened which shall be no mere mutiny, but 
the expression of a universal feeling of nationality, at that 
moment all hope is at an end, as all desire ought to be at 
an end, of preserving our empire. For we are not really 
conquerors of India, and we cannot rule her as conquer- 


ors; if we -undertook to do so ... we should assuredly 
be ruined financially by the mere attempt. 
PROFESSOR SKELEY, in The Expansion of England. 


In the name of God, the compassionate Compassioner. 
Praise be to God, the Lord of the worlds, the compassion- 
ate Compassioner, the Sovereign of the day of judgment. 
Thee do we worship and of Thee do we beg assistance. 
Direct us in the right way ; in the way of those to whom 
Thou hast been gracious, on whom there is no wrath, 
and who go not astray. 

Jesus Christ, according to the Koran, is only one of 
six apostles specially chosen to proclaim new dispensa- 
tions in confirmation of previous ones. These are Adam, 
Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed. The 
Koran makes the following declaration : " The Christians 
say Christ is the Son of God. May God resist them . . . 
how are they infatuated ! . . ." 

The creation of the race is described as follows: 
" Allah took into his hands a mass of clay, and, divid- 
ing it in two equal portions, he threw one-half into hell, 
saying, 4 These to eternal fire, and I care not ! ' and, toss- 
ing the other upward, he added, < These to paradise, and 
I care not I 9 " 

Whatever good betideth thee is from God, and what- 
ever betide th thee of evil is from thyself. Koran. 

Godl there is no god but he, the living, the eternal. 
Slumber doth not overtake him, neither sleep; to him 
belongeth all that is in heaven and in earth. Who is he 
that can intercede with Mm but by his own permission? 


He knoweth that which Is past and that which is to come 
unto them, and they shall not comprehend anything of 
his knowledge but so far as he pleaseth. His throne 
is extended over heaven and earth, and the upholding of 
both is no burden unfco him. He is the lofty and great. 

(These sentences from the Koran are still often 
engraved on precious stones and worn by devout Mussul- 


in the year 1902 by the mouth of Sheik Abdul Hagk, of 
Bagdad : 

For us in the world there are only believers and un- 
believers ; love, charity, fraternity toward believers; 
contempt, disgust, hatred, and war against unbelievers. 
Amongst unbelievers the most hateful and criminal arc 
those who, while recognizing God 7 attribute to Him 
earthly relationships, give Him a son, a mother. Learn 
then, European observers, that a Christian of no matter 
what position, from the simple fact that he is a Christian, 
is in our eyes a blind man fallen from all human dignity. 
Other infidels have rarely been aggressive toward us. But 
Christians have in all times shown themselves our biir 
terest enemies. . . . The only excuse joii offer is that you 
reproach us with being rebellious against your civiliza- 
tion. Yes, rebellious, and rebellious till death ! But it is 
you, and you alone, who are the cause of this. Great 
God 1 are we blind enough not to see the prodigies of your 
progress ? But know, Christian conquerors, that no cal- 
culation, no treasure, no miracle can ever reconcile us to 
your impious rule. Know that the mere sight of your flag 
here is torture to Islam's soul; your greatest benefits are so 
many spots sullying our conscience, and our most ardent 
aspiration and nope is to reach the happy day when we 
can efface the last vestiges of your accursed empire. 



" What would Ibe the result if the British forces wei*e 
to withdraw to-morrow from India ? *' recently asked a 
well-known American traveller of a Hindu high in rank. 

" What would be the result," was the answer, " if the 
bars were suddenly removed from all the cages in a me- 
nagerie ? There would be a terrific fight all around among 
the wild beasts, and the wild beast that would come out 
ahead would be the Bengal tiger ; and the Bengal tiger 
would be the Mohammedan." 


"Let no canopy cover my grave. This grass is the 
best covering for the poor in spirit. The humble, the 
transitory Jehanara, the disciple of the holy men of 
Christ, the daughter of the Emperor, Shah Jehan." 


All good do I accept at thy command, God, and 
think, speak, and do it. I believe in the pure law ; by 
every good work seek I forgiveness for all sins, I keep 
pure for myself the serviceable work and abstinence from 
the unprofitable. I keep pure the six powers, thought, 
speech, work, memory, mind, and understanding. Accord- 
ing to thy will am I able to accomplish, O accomplisher 
of good, thy honor, with good thoughts, good words, good, 

I enter on the shining way to paradise; may the 
fearful terror of hell not overcome me 1 May 1 step over 
the bridge Chinevat, may I attain paradise, with much 
perfume and all enjoyments and all brightness. 


Take up the white man's burden, 

Send forth the best ye breed. 
Go, bind your sons to exile 

To serve your captives' need ; 
To wait, in heavy harness, 

On fluttered folk and wild, 
Your new-caught, sullen peoples, 

Half devil and half child. 

Take up the white man's burden 

Ye dare not stoop to less 
JSTor call too loud on Freedom 

To cloke your weariness. 
By all ye will or whisper, 

By all ye leave or do, 
The silent, sullen peoples 

Shall weigh your God and you." 



(Carved, on a pillar at Delhi) 

I pray with every variety of prayer for those who 
differ from me in creed, that they, following my proper 
example, may with me attain unto eternal salvation. 


This world is a bridge. Pass thou over it, but build 
not upon it. This world is one hour ; give its minutes 
to thy prayers ; for the rest is unseen. 



I. Comparison between. Buddhism and Christianity 

(Asoka and Constantino). 
II. The Parsis in India. 

III. Islam, the Ideal and the Real. 

IV. Good and Evil Results of the Mohammedan Con- 

quest. Famous Men and Women. 
V. Comparison between the Reigns of Akbar the 

Great and Elizabeth of England. 

VI. Agra and the Taj Mahal ; the JVIughals as Builders. 
VI L Delhi, the Rome of India. 
VIII. Christian English Statesmen of India. 
IX. Calcutta and Bombay, Cities of Recent Growth. 
X. Lord CHve and Warren Hastings. 
XI The Sikhs, Rajputs, and Mahrattas. 
XII. The Sepoy Mutiny, Cawnpore and Lucknow. (Read 
Tennyson's " The Defence of Lucknow " and R. 
Lowell's " The Relief of Lucknow.") ' 


Sir E. Arnold's India Revisited," VI, VII, IX. 
Butler's "Land of the Veda," III, IV, VI, XI, XII. 
Carlyle's "On Heroes: Mahomet," III. 
Clarke's Ten Great Religions," I, II, III. 
Bods' " Mohammed, Buddha, and Christ," I, III. 
Fergusson's " Indian Architecture," IV, VI, VII. 
Frazor's "British India," IV, V, VIII, X, XI, XII. 
Humphreys* " Gems of India," IV, VI. 
Hurst's "Indika," II, IV, VI, VII, IX, XII. 
Kellogg's " Light of Asia and Light of the World," I. 
Kipling's " City of the Dreadful Night," IX. 
The Koran, III. 


Leonowens's "Life and Travel in India," IT, IV, IX. 

Living Papers Series, " Non-Christian Religions of the 
World," I, II, III. 

McCarthy's " History of our Own Times," "VIII, XII. 

Macanlay's "Essays," X. 

Reed's " Persian Literature," II, III. 

Rousselet's " India and its Native Princes," IV, VI, VII, 

Bosworth Smith's "Mohammed and the Mohamme- 
dans/' III. 

Steevens's " In India," II, VI, VII, VIII, XL 

Thoburn's " India and Malaysia," I, II, III, IV. 

Wheeler's " Short History of India." For all but L 

Sir M, Williams's " Religious Thought and Life in India," 

Sir M. Williaras's " Buddhism," I. 


Out of a thousand natives selected from the different 
religions in their due proportion, 723 would be Hindu, 
199 Mohammedan, 24 Buddhist, 6 Sikh, 8 Christian, the 
remaining 40 pagans. The totals are as follows : 

Hindus . 

207 7 9 8 676 


. 57,321,164 



Buddhists (Burma) 


Christians (Prot.) 


" (other) 


2,284,380 2 













Total . . . 287,223,431 


There are one hundred languages and fifty dialects 
spoken, due chiefly to the diversity of race. Every great 
invasion has been the signal for thrusting a new language 
upon the country. These languages may be divided into 
three groups, the Aryan, Dravidian, Kolarian. 

The original Aryan, from which all Indo-European 
tongues sprang, has perished. It developed into San- 
skrit, the old classical language of government and higher 
education, now a dead language. The most important 
of the Aryan languages are : 

J For this table and those on the page following the author 
is indebted to the courtesy of the Foreign Missions Library. 

2 The census for 1901 shows an increase in this total of 
638,969 for the decade. 

Continued from page 85. 





Lower Bengal 






Valley of Assam 



or Urdu 

and Hindi 

N. W. Provinces, Kajputana, 

and Punjab 



Bombay and Deccan 



Gugerat, commercial language 

throughout western India 









British Afghanistan 



Valley of Kashmir 


Of the Dravidian languages all but four are unculti- 
vated, unwritten, and spoken only by uncivilized hill 
tribes. These four are : 





Madras to Cape Comorin 




Lower basins of Kistna and 




Mysore and northward 



Travancore and Malabar coast 


The Kolarian languages are all without character or 
literature, and are spoken only by hill tribes* 



Oh, masters, lords, and rulers in all lands, 
How will the future reckon with this man? 
How answer Ms brute question in that hour 
When whirlwinds of rebellion shake the world ? 
How will it be with kingdoms and with kings, 
With those who shaped him to the thing he is, 
When this dumb terror shall reply to God 
After the silence of the centuries ? 


WHAT of the people themselves, so often 
conquered, so intermingled In strain ? 

It has been well said, there is 110 Indian 
people. There is a motley mass of humanity, 
of different races and tribes and a hundred 
tongues, composing the population of India, but 
they are no more a distinct nation than are the 
peoples of Europe. 

The Hindus, however, Aryan and 11011- Aryan, 
have not been essentially amalgamated with 
their Mohammedan or British conquerors ; their 
Brahmanical religion and the customs founded 
upon the Code of Manu remain substantially 
unchanged from ancient ages. 

To the Hindu people, then, so greatly in ex- 
cess of all others numerically in India, we must 
give our attention, with especial reference to the 
condition of women and the practices of religion. 




About sixty per cent of the population of In- 
dia * lives by agriculture. Ninety per cent is a 
rural population. In all India there are but 
twenty-eight cities numbering over 100,000 
inhabitants, and but six whose populations 
exceed 200,000, viz., Bombay (821,764), Cal- 
cutta (741,144), Madras (452,518), Haidara- 
bacl (415,089), Lucknow (273,028), Benares 

The rural population, stolid and illiterate in 
the main, resides in villages ; the common occu- 
pations beside agriculture are working as smiths, 
carpenters, oil-pressers, potters, and weavers. 
The. houses, built of matting, wattles, or adobe, 
and roofed with reeds or grass, are primitive in 
structure and almost destitute of furnishing. 
The common life of the villagers is laborious, 
monotonous, and colorless to a degree. Rice, 
the staple article of food, is commonly cleansed 
and ground by the women. 

There is little manufacture on a large scale, 
but in delicacy and beauty the silk and cotton 
fabrics, the embroidery, jewelry, and carpets of 
India are unexcelled in the world's products. 

The Hindus are a civilized people, but their 
civilization seems to have remained stagnant for 
three thousand years. Life is on a dead level. 

1 Two hundred and eighty-eight millions total. 


" It tires one," says a recent English traveller, 
"to see tlie fixedness, the apathy, the lifeless- 
ness of a great population which should by right 
be up and stirring, trading, and organizing. 
There is a strange mingling in the Oriental of 
impassiveness and childishness, of fierce pas- 
sions and primitive ideas." Not inaptly have 
the Hindus been called "a nation of children." 

Hacial Characteristics 

The physical characteristics of the leading 
races in India have been thus described by a 
French authority : the Aryan type (chiefly 
represented in its purity by the Rajput and 
Brahman) is marked by a long head ; the face 
is long, symmetrical, and narrow; the nose is 
straight and delicate ; the forehead is well de- 
veloped ; features regular, and the facial angle 
high ; in stature he is somewhat tall ; the com- 
plexion is clear, and even fair in some cases. 

The Dravidian type inclines somewhat toward 
the long head ; the nose is large and broad ; 
facial angle comparatively low; lips are thick; 
face large and fleshy ; features coarse and ir- 
regular; height low; complexion varies from 
brown to almost black. 

The Mongol type (including Tibeto-Burman 
and Kolarian) is marked by a short head ; the 
face is large ; nose short and large ; the cheek- 
bones are high and prominent ; the eyes appear 
to be set awry upon the face. 


While less muscular than the European, the 
Hindu is more graceful in his movements. The 
height, strength, and courage of those dwelling 
in the north are generally greater than are found 
in southern India. ' The average duration of 
life is twenty-four years, against nearly forty- 
four years in England. 

The Hindus are docile, gentle, peaceable, and 
temperate, courteous to a degree, affectionate, 
and naturally religious. Of fair intelligence, 
and, in the Brahman caste, capable of a refine- 
ment of philosophic subtlety in thinking, they 
are singularly unresponsive to social and intel- 
lectual progress. Instead of creative or inven- 
tive energy, in the higher type of Hindu we 
have a dreamy, speculative, brooding habit of 
mind ; instead of manly and cheerful courage, 
a fixed fatalism ; instead of calm reason, a fever- 
ish and unwholesome imagination ; in place of 
patriotism, among the poorer classes at least, a 
dull indifference as to who rules his land if only 
he be suffered to plough his field and eat his 
rice in peace. Throughout the nation there 
is, in place of the stern and rugged virtues of 
freemen, a passive subservience, a loss of the 
power of self-government, an absence of ambi- 
tion in almost every field of activity. " We are 
a subject race," said Protap Chunder Mozoom- 
dar; " we are uneducated ; we are incapable." 

A good illustration of the contrast between 
the progressive American and the conservative 


Hindu is offered by the fact that while in the 
Patent Office in Washington there are models 
for six thousand improved ploughs, the inhabit- 
ants of India use the same implement which was 
used by their progenitors at least two thousand 
years ago. 

The characteristics named are obviously those 
of a people so often conquered that the power 
of energetic action, the principles of patriotism 
and national integrity, have been almost crushed 
out, for the story of their past is but the long 
monotony of repeated conquest and oppression. 
"The White Queen over the Sea" has been to 
the people at large but a species of fabulous 
fairy allotted by Pate to rule over them for a 


Poverty and Famine 

The tropical, enervating climate, together 
with imperfect agricultural methods and fre- 
quent 'droughts, gives rise to a condition of 
extreme poverty in itself essentially productive 
of a low vitality and a physical languor almost 
fatal to the development of the spirit of personal 
and public progress. It must be also borne in 
mind that the density of the population of India, 
nearly eleven times greater to the square mile 
than that of the United States, contributes 
powerfully to conditions of poverty and 

While the magnificent spectacle attending 
the proclamation of Queen Victoria as Empress 

92 -era: CHEISTI 

of India was holding- the eye of the world in the 
year 1877, the shadow of a famine more terrible 
than had been known in a century was dark- 
ening southern India. As a result of the condi- 
tions which followed, the deaths from starvation, 
and disease incident to lack of food, were esti- 
mated at five million two hundred and fifty 

During the last quarter of a century, that is 
since the famine of 1876-1877, there have been 
sixteen great famines, resulting in over twenty 
million deaths, a startling increase over the 
record for any previous period of the same 

The plague and famine of 1897, in northern 
central India, directly involved in indescribable 
sufferings a population of thirty-seven millions, 
while thrice that number were in the region of 


Average Incomes 

It is possible that 'to the English or American 
reader the ordinary conditions of life among 
the Hindus would appear to merit the term 
"scarcity," which is usually applied only to 
famine conditions. The official estimate of the 
average Indian income for those outside govern- 
ment positions in 1882 was three cents a day, or 
eleven dollars a year for each person. In 1900 
it has been estimated as a cent and a half a day. 
These figures will indicate the profound a-nd in- 
creasing poverty of the people at large. It may 


also lead thoughtful readers to wonder less at the 
apathy, the fatalism, the spiritless and stoical 
lethargy of the nation. 

The average yearly salary of India's native 
officials in the British civil and military service 
for the year 1898-1899 was one hundred and 
eighty dollars. The average salary of her 
English officials, who of necessity occupy the 
more responsible positions, was three thousand 
dollars for the same year. In official position 
the Englishman undoubtedly has the preference 
over the native, and in all the higher positions 
this preference practically amounts almost to 
monopoly. It is pardonable, then, as says 
Bishop Thoburn, if the Indian looks upon the 
English youth who comes out to take up work 
in India, as something more than a rival, as 
rather an unjust supplanter of the children of 
the soil. 

A careful student of the financial condition 
of British India at the beginning of the twen- 
tieth century writes, " Nearly the whole of the 
wealth remaining in the country a hundred 
years ago has been so drained away that there 
is now less popular pecuniary reserve in India 
than in any civilized country in the world." 

It has been estimated that forty millions of 
the people habitually live on one meal a day, 
and it is a matter of course for multitudes to lie 
down to sleep hungry every night. " A patient 
people, these villagers of India; they have been 


hungry these thirty centuries, and it has never 
occurred to them that they have any claim to be 


The wrongs of Indian womanhood have been 
frequently and movingly set forth. 

Let us begin our study of this topic, however, 
by stating that though much is wrong, all is not 
wrong. The Hindus are better than Hinduism. 
Harsh and brutal as are the dicta of the Code of 
Manu on the subject of women, the inborn laws 
of humanity, the practical requirements of daily 
social and domestic life, and above all the power 
of natural affection, have greatly softened the 
application of those laws. 

Woman in the Vedas 

Even the Sanskrit books have some fine con- 
ceptions of womanly attributes, and the early 
Vedas held women in high regard. In later 
literature the ideal woman is described as a 
pattern of worldly and self-centred perfection: 
she is to keep all her husband's secrets, never 
to reveal the amount of his wealth, to excel 
all other women in personal attractiveness, in 
knowledge of cookery, in hospitality and in 
thrift, and in superintending every detail of 
family life. Finally, she is to cooperate with 
her husband in pursuing the three great objects 


of life, religious merit, wealth, and enjoyment. 
This perfect woman is called a Padmini (a lotus 
flower of womankind). In short, the highest 
ideal of Hindu womanhood approximates closely 
the lowest standard of Christian womanhood, 
falsely called Christian, since it names but 
knows not Christ. 

Seclusion of Women 

It is not probable that the early Hindus ever 
enforced the seclusion of their women. This 
practice is due to Mohammedan influences, and, 
in actual fact, concerns only a small percentage 
even of high-caste Hindu women. In the 
Mahratta country, in western India, and in 
many districts where Mohammedan influence 
has not prevailed, the women enjoy a large de- 
gree of freedom. 

Those who are confined in the Zenana (L 
Mohanimedan term) or behind the Purdah (the 
Hindu for veil or curtain) consider their lot a 
very exalted one and a token of their aristo- 
cratic superiority, although they may never 
have enjoyed a good ride or walk in their lives, 
or seen anything of the world outside their 
comfortless quarters. The women's apartments, 
even in elegant marble mansions in the great 
cities, are in the back of the house, gloomy and 
inferior, dull and prison-like. The native dress 
of the women consists of a small jacket and 
a sari, i.e. six to nine yards of cloth, one 


end of which is wrapped around the waist, 
gathered into folds in front, and secured 
by tucking under. When required, this end 
may be readily loosed and used as a head 
covering. If the husbands are wealthy, the 
women load themselves with the gorgeous, 
barbaric jewels of which all Indian women are 
so fond, and spend their time in vacant idleness 
or in elaborate, voluptuous baths and anoint- 
ings. Otherwise, they have the resource of 
cookery and other domestic occupation. The 
sole subjects for conversation in the belittling 
life of the Zenana are the pettiest gossip, and 
the tedious intrigues of the complex household 
in which four generations may be included, 
with several wives and concubines for every 
man. Intellectual life, philanthropy, patriotic 
and public interests there are none. So deep is 
the prejudice against the movement for the 
education of women that the recent severe 
droughts have been ascribed to the displeasure 
of the gods on this account. It has been a 
popular belief among high-caste women that 
their husbands would die if they should even 
learn to read or write. 

Common Characteristics 

Notwithstanding these and many depressing 
influences, the ties of family life are strong in 
India, perhaps the most hopeful fact in the 
problem of uplifting the people. The mother 


of sons enjoys a species of honor and respect, 
and a mother-in-law rules her sons' wives 
with despotic authority. The married women, 
while held as servile inferiors to their hus- 
bands, are gentle, retiring, and not devoid of 
personal beauty; patience and tenderness are 
chief characteristics, and the love of children, 
amounts in many cases to a passion ; while, oil 
the other hand, instances of most unnatural 
cruelty are not uncommon. In the gentler 
features of Hindu womanhood above mentioned 
dwell the promise and potency of a noble future 
for the race; but there are social conditions 
which stand like an almost insurmountable 
barrier between actual conditions and such a 
consummation. For women of moral and in- 
tellectual excellence are exceptions, and until 
Asiatic women, whether Hindu or Moslem, are 
elevated and educated, all efforts to raise Asiatic 
nations to the level of Anglo-Saxon will remain 

Of the average Hindu woman it can be 
truly said : her birth is unwelcome, her physi- 
cal life is outraged, her mental life is stunted, 
her spiritual life is denied existence. Female 
infanticide, while no longer openly committed, 
is known to be still prevalent, especially among 
the Rajputs, who are too proud to make inferior 
alliances for their daughters, or too poor to 
provide several with the large dowry which 
extravagant custom has fixed, and therefore 


quietly put superfluous girl babies out of the 


Family Life 

The " joint-family system " of India is a 
dangerous one to family peace; jealousy and 
hatred, discord and deceit, rule. Family feuds 
and litigations are everyday occurrences. The 
Hindu family is an incoherent and cumbrous 
mass. Upon the children are concentrated the 
power of evil example and every aspect of 
domestic unhappiness. A sad feature of home 
life is the prurient precocity of children, who 
begin their vile language in their infant prattle, 
and grow old in pollution while young in years, 
"The child's life is full of misery. The in- 
decent speech of the home is one of its darkest 
features. Worse than all is the woe of Indian 
childhood which befalls the opening mind when, 
J ed by their mothers to the Indian temple, their 
eyes are met with sights, their ears assailed with 
songs, of such loathsome import, that innocency 
may not sustain the strain, and the child mind 
perishes in that awful hour." 

The average Indian mother never thinks of 
paying attention to the moral or mental devel- 
opment of her little children, while, as they 
usually go unclad and often unwashed, her 
cares for their physical life are simple. The 
lack of sanitary knowledge involves habits of 
life filthy beyond description. 

Polygamy is not common among the lower 


class of Hindus, although, permitted to the 
Brahmans, and to all if the wife fails to bear 
a son after seven years. Among Mohamme- 
dans it is prevalent, while open concubinage 
is common to all classes in India. The wide- 
spread ignorance of Indian women is evidenced 
by statistics which show that in 1897 there were 
but six women out of every thousand who could 
read or write. If the women above twenty- 
five years of age are reckoned, we find that the 
percentage of illiterates is ninety-nine and one- 
half, indicating that female education is almost 
confined to this generation. 

A Mohammedan Household 

" In a rich man's harem," says Isabella Bishop, 
" there are women of all ages and colors, girl 
children, and very young boys. There are the 
favorite and other legitimate wives, concubines, 
who have recognized, but very slender, rights, 
discarded wives who have been favorites in their 
day, and who have passed into practical slavery 
to their successors, numbers of slaves and old 
women, daughters-in-law, and child or girl 
widows whose lot is deplorable, and many others. 
I have seen as many as two hundred in one 
house, a great crowd, privacy being unknown, 
grossly ignorant, with intolerable curiosity 
forcing on a stranger abominable or frivolous 
questions, then relapsing into apathy but rarely 
broken, except by outbreaks of hate and th 


results of successful intrigue." The Moslem 
population remains a sullen and ominous ele- 
ment in the life of India. The youths are 
proverbially slow to acquire education. The 
men and women are in no way superior in in- 
telligence, morality, or industry to the Hindus. 

Child Marriage 

At the foundation of all the wrongs to Indian 
womanhood lies the practice of enforced child- 
marriage, with its concomitant of child-widow- 

The custom of child-marriage is at least five 
hundred years older than the Christian era, and 
doubtless sprang from the belief that a man had 
no claim to the funeral ceremonial rites of his 
religion unless he was the father of a son, and 
that for an unmarried woman there was no 

Little girls are betrothed in their cradles, or 
at the age of three or four, to boys a " little 
older, of whom they know nothing, until, at 
the age of seven or eight, and from that up 
to twelve as the maximum, they are claimed 
as wives, and conducted to the homes of their 

Motherhood at the age of ten or twelve is not 
infrequent, and many grandmothers are but 
twenty-five. Thus Hindu custom ordains that 
the women of India shall bear children while 
they are still children themselves, and a stunted, 


degenerate, and ill-developed race is the inevi- 
table result. 

" It must be borne in mind," says Ramabai, 
" that both in northern and southern India the 
term c marriage ' in infancy does not mean any- 
thing more than an irrevocable betrothal. The 
ceremony gone through at that titne establishes 
religiously the conjugal relationship of both 
parties; there is a second ceremony which con- 
firms the relationship both religiously and so- 
cially, which does not take place until the chil- 
dren attain the age of puberty." The Hindu 
people, as we now see, are not merely a " nation 
of children" but pf the children of children. 
Marriage contracted and children born when 
there is no adequate means of support is further- 
more a productive cause of the grinding poverty 
of the country. Hindu Swamis boast that there 
is no divorce in India. No, for marriage 
anconsciously contracted child-marriage is 
irrevocable for the wife, while the husband has 
no need of divorce, since he can desert his wife 
if he choose, and can install other women in- his 
household if so minded. 

Child Widows 

Child-marriage entails the yet more awful 
system of child-widowhood, so blasting to all 
which makes life worth living that it has been 
termed " cold suttee," and many persons have 
felt that the ancient and now forbidden prac- 


tiee of widow-burning, by which the widow 
passed by death from the long martyrdom of 
life now her portion, was almost preferable. 

Sir William Hunter quotes the following, 
which we will give as a typical case of child- 
widowhood : " Let us take the instance of a 
child of three years. This is not an excep- 
tional but a fairly general instance. Of the 
fact that she has been once married and has 
become a widow she knows nothing. She, 
therefore, mixes with children not widowed. 
Supposing there is a festivity, children run to 
the scene ; but the sight of a widowed child is 
a bad omen to the persons concerned in the fes- 
tivities. She is removed by force. She cries, 
and is rewarded by her parents with a blow 
accompanied by remarks such as these : * You 
were a most sinful being in your previous 
births, you have, therefore, been widowed 
already. Instead of hiding your shame in a 
corner of the house, you go and injure others.' 
. . . The child can wear no ornaments. She 
cannot bathe in the manner that other children 
bathe. Her touch is pollution. In the mean- 
while, if the priest happens to visit the place 
where the child is, her head is immediately 
shaved and she is dressed in the single, coarse 
garment of the widow. She is then asked to eat 
only once in the day, and required to fast once 
a fortnight, even at the risk of death, the fast 
sometimes continuing for seventy-two hours." 


The name "rand," by which, the widow is 
generally known, is equivalent to the term "har- 
lot." Ill treated by her family, or the family 
of her dead husband, in which she may dwell, 
as a contemptible, disgraceful being, it is no 
wonder that the young widow often seeks 
escape. But whither can she go? No respect- 
able family will have her for a servant. She 
has been rendered repulsive in appearance by 
the shaving of her head; she is absolutely 
ignorant, absolutely destitute, owning only 
her single garment. The alternatives before 
her are submission to her wretched lot, suicide, 
or a life of infamy. Suicide is common ; still 
more common the life of shame. It is largely 
from the class of child-widows that the ranks 
of the temple girls are recruited. 

Religious Prostitution of Womanhood 

The social and religious system of Hinduism 
brings in its train the dishonoring of women 
in a degree little understood by the western 

The service of the temples demands large 
numbers of dancing-girls, or priestesses, who 
are dedicated in infancy to this vocation. 
When arrived at womanhood, they give their 
bodies to the service and maintenance of the 
temple, and form one of the most fruitful 
sources of the depravity of the Brahman priest- 
hood, to whose pleasure they are primarily de- 


voted. These temple girls are called devadasis, 
meaning slaves of the god. 

Another class of courtesans, more familiar to 
European travellers in India, are the nautch 

The institution of the nautch is a very ancient 
one, based upon the example of the god Krishna, 
who sported with thousands of dancing-girls. 
Hence social custom sanctions their presence at 
all weddings, receptions, and functions of every 
kind. The nautch girl, being the only woman 
in India, until recent times, who had intellectual 
life or training, or any freedom in society, has 
held a somewhat honored place, corresponding 
in a way to the professional courtesan in the 
old Greek social fabric. All other women in 
India are strictly forbidden to dance, and edu- 
cation in a girl is still regarded in conservative 
Indian circles as a mark of loose morality. 

The nautch girl is taught from earliest child- 
hood to read, dance, and sing, and instructed in 
every art of seduction. These girls are usually 
beautiful and graceful, and they follow their 
profession with the characteristic submission 
of all Hindu women. They frequently acquire 
large fortunes, receiving extravagant gifts from, 
wealthy Brahmans who come under the fascina- 
tion of their wit, beauty, and accomplishments. 

The inuralis are girls devoted by their parents 
in infancy to the god Khandoba, a deity o the 
Maratha country. The rites of this dedication 


are termed "being married to a sword," the 
weapon of Khandoba. These muralis are 
licensed by law and dedicated to impure lives 
in the name of their religion. If you ask what 
can justify such action on the part of the 
parents, you will be told by the natives, "It 
is our custom." Custom, in India is indeed 


In certain theoretical points Hinduism pos- 
sesses affinities for Christianity, and the Hindu 
is more accessible than the Mussulman to Chris- 
tian motives. Hinduism is a theistic religion ; it 
upholds belief in a trinity, in divine self -revela- 
tion and incarnation ; it inculcates the deepest 
reverence for and submission to God. The 
Hindus are a naturally religious people ; and 
the resignation and patience which so peculiarly 
characterize them, with the exception of the 
Brahman caste, predispose them to the recep- 
tion of the meek and lowly Redeemer. So 
much on the theoretical side. 

We must now look at the practical working 
of the system in the common life of the people. 
It is not a congenial task to point out the weak- 
ness and failure of religious conceptions which 
are accepted by nearly one-fifth of the human 
race. It would be far more agreeable at this 
point to seek to discover something pure and 
helpful in the practices of Brahmanism, if this 


were honestly possible. The curse of India is, 
that its gods are the base productions of the 
polluted imaginations of its people. 

Apologists for Hinduism 

Great in the past has been the restraint of 
missionaries and travellers. Too great, perhaps, 
in view of the glamour which certain cham- 
pions of Hinduism have of late striven to throw 
over it. As if by tacit consent, the darker fea- 
tures of Hindu worship have been left shrouded 
in silence and mystery, as being too repulsive to 
mention. It has been reserved, however, until 
these later days for civilized and Christianized 
men and women to dream of apologizing for 
idolatry and the nameless rites of Hindu shrines. 
But the time has now come when idolatry is not 
only apologized for as an innocent aid to devo- 
tion, but the system of which it is the concrete 
expression is idealized, when it is even held up, 
and not in vain, for the admiration of the Chris- 
tian world. These tendencies are leading to a 
distinctly felt reaction and to a crisis in the 
history of missionary endeavor which a gener- 
ation ago no one could have foreseen. 

It must be borne in mind that the apologists 
for Brahinanism who have gained influence in 
England and America, even though they be 
Brahnmn priests have been trained in English 
schools and shaped by English environment, 
until they have learned how to present their 


system in a form artfully idealized to suit the 
western mind, and stripped for the time being 
of all repulsive features. 


However subtle their pantheism in theory, 
in practice the Hindus are grossly idolatrous. 
Straightforward Hindu testimony utterly dis- 
proves the fine-spun theories of Brahman apolo- 
gists. Over and over do the heathen themselves 
testify that the material form of the idol fills 
the mind and unfits it for any spiritual concep- 
tion. "Idolatry is the curse of Hindustan," 
says Keshub Chunder Sen, " the deadly canker 
which has eaten into the vitals of native society." 

The famous Rajah Rammohun Roy says : " I 
have observed that both in their writings and 
conversation many Europeans feel a wish to 
palliate and soften the features of Hindu idola- 
try, and are inclined to inculcate the idea that 
all objects of worship are considered by their 
votaries as emblematical representatives of the 
Supreme Divinity. The truth is, the Hindus of 
the present day have no such view of it. Neither 
do the Hindus regard the images of their gods 
merely in the light of instruments for elevating 
the mind to the conception of those supposed 
beings ; they are simply in themselves made ob- 
jects of worship"" 

It is well to put this statement of a learned 
Hindu beside the futile benevolence of Sir Edwin 


Arnold, who describes the Brahman priests in 
the temples at Benares giving him "flower 
wreaths from the necks of their idols and 
smiling assent when I said that no 'Twice- 
born' who had read his Bhagavad-Gita could 
believe in stone Mahadeos (Sivas) and wooden 
Gunpatis (Ganesas) except as symbols." 

Truly if all that is wanted in defence of 
Hinduism is a "smile of assent" in response 
to a leading question, the defence may not be 

The Singer of the "Light of Asia," who is 
certainly not biassed by anti-Hindu prejudice, fur- 
ther tells us that while " Sakya-Muni's teaching 
did away with the bloody rites of the Brahmanic 
period, there are still immolations of a sad kind 
practised secretly in India. The Bheels and 
Chamars cast themselves occasionally from lofty 
rocks near Jairad, hoping to be Rajahs in the next 
state of life. In 1877 a Gosain of Benares sac- 
rificed a boy of twelve in order to discover treas- 
ure. In 1883 a Banya family of twelve persons 
committed suicide in unison to 'please the 
gods,' " etc. Indifference to suffering and to 
human life are deeply ingrained in the disposi- 
tions of the people, less from cruelty than from 
fatalistic apathy. 

Animal and Plant Worship 

Again Sir Edwin Arnold exclaims: "One 
cannot be a day in this land without observing 


how the ancient worship of the cow still holds the 
minds of the Hindus. . . . Good Brahmans will 
feed a cow before they take their own breakfast, 
exclaiming, 'Daughter of Surabhi, formed of five 
elements, auspicious, pure, and holy, sprung from 
the sun, accept this food from me. Salutation 
and peace ! ' Everything which comes from the 
cow is sacred and purifying, the droppings are 
plastered with water over the floors and veran- 
das of all native houses and upon the cooking 
places; the ashes of the same commodity are 
used with coloring powders to mark the fore- 
heads, necks, and arms of the pious," etc. 

So efficiently hallowing is the cow in popular 
esteem that the serious pollution of a visit to 
England may be done away by the penance of 
Santapana, i.e. by swallowing a pill composed of 
the five products of the sacred beast. There is 
a famous Hindu saying, " There are many sects 
in India, but upon two main points we all agree, 
the sanctity of the cow and the depravity of 

The bull ranks next to the cow, and the wor- 
ship of snakes and monkeys is universally prev- 
alent. Hanuman, the black-faced monkey-god, 
is the especial guardian of Mahratta villages. 

"Witchcraft and demoniacal possession enter 
essentially into the common consideration of the 
people, whose superstition is wellnigh incredi- 
ble, and who are at the mercy of the most 
appalling and sickening fears. 


The fish, the tortoise, and the bear are wor- 
shipped as incarnations of Vishnu. The shrub 
called tulasi, or holy basil, is regarded as divine, 
and is par excellence a woman's deity. The 
pipal tree is supposed to be a residence of the 
god Brahma, and is sometimes invested with 
the sacred thread, all the ceremonies of investi- 
ture being performed over it* The bilva tree, 
with its triple leaf, is sacred to Siva, and its 
leaves are continually placed on the ling and 
on the bull. 

Water Worship 

Running water is everywhere held to be 
"instinct with deity." The famous Ganges 
("Mother Gunga") is the holiest river of In- 
dia. a N~o sin is too heinous to be removed, no 
character too black to be washed clean by its 
waters." Countless temples line its banks ; 
countless priests stand ready to aid the wor- 
shippers in their ablutions. The conflux of the 
Jumna and the Ganges is the very holy of 
holies to the Hindu. Bottles of Ganges water 
are sent to all parts of the country, and have 
been used by local justices in administering 
oaths side by side with the Christian Bible 
and the Koran. The Narbada River is also 
counted peculiarly sacred. Death on the banks 
of either of these rivers is ardently desired 
by every orthodox Hindu. 


G-oddess Worship 

Yet lower than all forms of nature worship 
is that of the female principle, or goddess wor- 
ship, of which Monier Williams, the famous 
Sanskrit scholar, writes as follows : " It might 
have been expected that a creed which admits 
of an infinite multiplication of female deities 
would be likely to degenerate into various 
forms of licentiousness on the one hand and 
of witchcraft on the other. In Saktism we are 
indeed confronted with the worst results of the 
worst superstitious ideas that have ever dis- 
graced and degraded the human race. It is 
by offering to women the so-called homage of 
sensual love and carnal passion, and by yield- 
ing free course to all the grosser appetites, 
wholly regardless of social rules and restric- 
tions, that the worshippers of the female power 
(Sakti) in nature seek to gratify the goddess. 
Incredible as it may appear, these so-called 
worshippers actually affect to pride themselves 
on their debasing doctrines, because to indulge 
the grosser appetites and passions, with the 
mind fixed on union with the Supreme Being, 
is believed to be the highest of all pious 

These detestable rites of Saktism are known 
as the " left-hand " method of worship, and 
the initiated call themselves "the perfect 

112 iror CHEISTI 

Distorted Oonceptions 

" These are our gods ! " cry the Hindus com- 
placently, as they point to the monkey-faced 
Hanuman, the elephant-headed Ganesa, the 
unspeakable Linga, the shapeless Mata Devi, 
the bloodthirsty Kali, the licentious Krishna, 
and many millions more. No religion known 
to humanity possesses a subtler mysticism, com- 
bined with a more manifold or more brutal 
pollution, than does Hinduism. "The grave 
Brahman will unreel you systems of metaphys- 
ics compared with which the ' Critique of Pure 
Reason' is simple and concrete; then he will 
depart and make his offering to a three-headed 
goddess covered with grease and red paint." 

Undoubtedly the popular Krishna has done 
more for the debauchery of Hindu youth than 
any other god or demigod. He was the eighth 
great avatar of Vishnu, and his cult is one of 
the most modern as well as most universal of 
the Hindu system. His jovial democratic na- 
ture and limitless amours seem to endear him 
peculiarly to the mind of the lower classes, 
The story of his life and the details of his wor- 
ship are unfit to print or read. 

Brindaban, the unholy city, famed as the birth- 
place of Krishna, is the seat of one thousand 
temples to this most popular deity. Hundreds 
of thousands of Hindus make pilgrimage to it 
every year. It is one of the vilest cities on 


earth. Six thousand girls, mostly child-widows, 
serve as temple prostitutes in the Krishna ser- 
vice. The devotees on the occasions of these, 
as of most of the great festivals, give them- 
selves up to the vilest orgies, equal in grovelling 
sensuality to those of the ancient Baal and 
Ashtaroth worship. Heathenism remains now 
as of old a filthy abomination. 

A very curious coalition of . Brahman and 
Buddhistic doctrines is found in the Vaishnava 
worship of Jagan-nath, literally "the Lord of 
the World." The apostle of this cult was 
Caitanya, a contemporary of Luther, who lived 
for many years at Pouri in Orissa, in close 
proximity to the temple of this most uncouth of 
deities. The triple image of Jagan-nath repre- 
sents without doubt the Brahman Tri-murti, 
whereas his car festival is a reproduction of 
the Tooth Festival of the Buddhists. The most 
significant features of this festival, furthermore, 
the temporary abolition of caste and the worship 
of relics (Krishna's bones are supposed to re- 
pose inside the image), are essentially non- 
Brahman and Buddhistic. The former suicide 
of Brahman fanatics, by throwing themselves 
under the wheels of the car of Jagan-nath, is 
now forcibly prevented by mounted policemen, 
who guard the annual processions. 

It is impossible to pass over in silence the 
thirty millions of Linga scattered everywhere 
through India, as the Mohammedans found 


them in the seventh century, by the roadside, 
on temple walls, and on idol chariots. This 
phallic emblem is the symbol of Siva, the 
regenerator, and is thought by some theorists 
and scholars to be wholly mystical in meaning, 
and not to involve sensual ideas. To those 
who have lived long, however, in India, and 
have observed the intimate working of Linga 
worship, it is plainly seen to be the source of 
much of the impurity of life and corruption of 
morals. A certain small temple at Benares, 
with its spire overlaid with gold, contains a 
stone lingam so sacred that to have performed 
acts of worship before it once in one's lifetime 
insures entry to the Brahmanio paradise. This 
revolting symbol is the focus of the great an- 
nual pilgrimage to Benares. Here the eager 
worshippers throng by the thousand, prostrat- 
ing themselves before the emblem and drinking 
from the " holy well " of Siva, hard by, draughts 
of fetid, greenish water. 

Said a well-known lecturer on India, writing 
on the spot in 1881 : " India is so much worse 
than any one can describe it ; the people are so 
much more vile than can be imagined; the 
forms of vice are all so disgusting! If you 
will consider that for generations every power 
that wicked imaginations can devise has been 
used to develop the lowest passions of both men 
and women, when the most widely worshipped 
god is the mere personification of the most de- 


basing of sins, you can imagine the condition of 

We have purposely drawn the statements 
given above from sources almost wholly secular, 
non-partisan, and non-missionary. They are 
the undeniable facts of common observation 
familiar to all residents in India and students 
of Hinduism, 

Religion divorced from Morality 

Perhaps the most significant characteristic of 
Hinduism, as it is one of the most difficult for 
the Occidental mind to grasp, is its utter divorce 
of morality and religion. The duties of life, 
says a recent writer, " are never inculcated in 
any Hindu temple, nor are any prayers ever 
offered for divine help in the performance of 
duty. It would be hard indeed even to con- 
ceive the possibility of prayer for purity being 
offered in a Hindu temple to a divinity sur- 
rounded by a bevy of dancing-girls." To meet 
with a devout Hindu who leads a flagrantly 
immoral life is a cause for no surprise or com- 
ment. The Hindu believes that a religious 
motive justifies every immorality, however 
gross. To abstain from certain meats and 
drinks, to avoid ceremonial defilement, are 
sacred duties, while lying and stealing and 
every form of deception are matters of indiffer- 
ence to the gods ; indeed, immorality has their 
explicit sanction. The common failings of the 


Hindu people are accordingly deceitfulness 
and immorality. Unhappily the government 
schools, while increasing the spread of knowl- 
edge, never touch upon ethics in any form, and 
have thus far proved powerless to elevate the 
moral tone of the people. 

Public Worship 

There is among the Hindus, aside from the 
great assemblies of the high festivals, no such 
thing as a worshipping and listening congrega- 
tion. Hindu temples have no accommodations 
for such, the average temple being commonly 
only about ten feet square, just large enough for 
the image it shelters and the priest who offici- 
ates at the altar. None of them, not even the 
enormous pagodas of southern India, are ar- 
ranged with a view to an audience. The people 
simply make their genuflexions and offerings, 
and pass on. 

It must be understood that not all the gods 
in the Hindii system are worshipped alike in all 
parts of India. Each god has his own following, 
limited by locality, class, or sect, although many 
of the people adopt a large number of deities. 
Of the Tri-murti, Brahma, Siva, and Vishnu, 
the former is not often made a subject of wor- 
ship; Siva is the ruling god in central and 
northwestern India ; Vishnu is usually wor- 
shipped in one of his incarnations. Worship- 
pers of Siva usually bear upon the forehead 


three horizontal marks made with white ashes. 
An upright mark, bright red, yellow, and white, 
stamps the follower of Vishnu. 

The essence of religion in the popular mind 
is to punctiliously keep caste, and by " gaining 
merit " in various ways to ward off as many 
rebirths of the allotted eight millions as pos- 
sible. Fear is the universally ruling principle 
in religion ; its outworking the desire for pro- 

Acquiring Merit 

"A few/' says one familiar with India by 
long residence, "an almost infinitesimal few, 
by austerities and prayers, are really seeking 
freedom from sin ; but the masses of both high 
and low do not realize the disintegrating and 
decaying action of sin on the soul. Most are 
trying to propitiate the evil spirits, or bribe the 
better ones to grant temporal blessings." 

Pilgrimages of incredible length and diffi- 
culty constitute a favorite method for " gaining 
merit." To journey on foot from the mouth 
of the sacred river Ganges to its source and 
back again, occupying six weary years, is sup- 
posed to secure extraordinary purification and 
favor with the gods- 

Mohammedan Worship 

In the Mohammedan mosque there are no 
idols, not even a symbolic suggestion, for the 
Mussulman is strictly non-idolatrous. Five 


times a day comes the impressive call to prayer, 
beginning with the first flush of dawn, " Prayer 
is more than deep fa more than sleep." Per- 
haps no class of men can be found more scrupu- 
lous in the performance of their religious forms 
than are the Mohammedans, but their religion 
leaves heart and character untouched, un- 
changed. Nevertheless, when compared with 
the disgusting rites of Hindu temples, the wor- 
ship in a Moslem mosque presents a tranquilliz- 
ing and almost spiritual semblance. Women 
are never admitted to the mosques. 

It is said that the great difficulty in reaching 
Moslems with the message of the Gospel is 
their dislike, amounting to disgust, of the 
practical idolatry of the old churches of the 
East. Moslems abhor image worship, and in 
the old churches they behold pictures and 
images of Mary and the saints, before which the 
worshippers bow down in homage. This is 
abhorrent to the Moslem, and he associates this 
idolatry of the Greek and Roman branches of 
the Church with Christianity. 

Buddhist Worship 

The practice of the worship of Buddha in 
India is confined to the borders of Thibet, to 
Burma, and to Ceylon, and as it affects so small 
a portion of the Indian people, it must be left 
to the consideration of a succeeding volume. 
Buddhism in its outworking is but slightly 


ill advance of Hinduism, since the images of 
Buddha are practically objects of idolatry, and. 
the temple service is always accompanied by 
Nat or spirit-worship, while the spinning of 
prayer wheels and the flutter of prayer flags 
from poles and tree-tops bespeak its superstitious 
character. Certain superficial resemblances to 
Roman Catholicism are to be seen in Buddhism, 
such as the use of rosaries, the worship of 
relics, the prevalence of monasteries, and celi- 
bate orders of monks and nuns. The Buddhist 
priesthood is notoriously corrupt, and life in the 
monasteries has reached the point of depravity 
which has provoked complaint to the govern- 
ment. Buddhist temples are often on a vast 
and imposing scale, iu contrast to the narrow 
shrines of Hinduism. 

Pa/rsi Customs regarding the Dead 

The Parsis have been spoken of as a superior 
race in culture, intelligence, and aptitude for 
civilization. They retain, however, the most 
barbaric burial customs known perhaps to 
humanity. In broad, low towers, known as 
" Towers of Silence," in which iron grates are 
stretched to receive them, their dead are exposed 
naked, out of sight or reach of all living, to the 
ravages of the vultures which perch round the 
walls ready to gorge themselves in horrid greed 
upon their prey. 

Thus even in the milder and less corrupt 


forms of heathenism we find some abhorrent 
and depraved features. Everywhere in India 
is a strange lurking mystery of dark deeds; 
impassive apathy to suffering inconceivable to 
the Occidental mind; deep treachery, and un- 
seen, unrecorded crime, 


ISFo influence is more potent in the bondage 
of the people to this darkened mind than is 
the mighty thraldom of caste. " On all sides 
you see the observance of minute caste rules," 
writes Margaret Denning. "You offer some 
bread or food to a hungry child; he refuses, 
but implores you to give him money, as he can 
buy raw grain and prepare it himself, so it will 
not be contaminated by your touch. Your cor- 
dial handshake is refused by the Zenana women 
for fear it will entail an extra bath of purifica- 
tion before they can prepare the next meal. 
Many castes dare not even receive a card from 
your hand. You must first lay it down, and 
then the other is free to lift it up," The caste 
system has extended in considerable measure to 
the Mohammedans, as in turn the Moslem seclu- 
sion of women has been taken on by the Hindus. 

Among the major evils proceeding from caste 
are physical degeneracy, owing to the narrow- 
ing circles wherein marriage is permitted ; the 
destruction of all sense of human brotherhood 
by the actual consecration of class hatred ; the 


intellectual stagnation involved in the fact that 
the highest caste alone, the Brahmans, are con- 
sidered fit to read and to teach. 


As laid down in the Code of Manu, the whole 
system of caste is but an organized scheme for 
the protection of the Brahmans in their colossal 
selfishness. "Since the Brahman sprang from 
the most excellent part, since he has the priority 
arising from primogeniture, and since he pos- 
sesses the Veda, he is "by right the lord of this 
whole creation." (Code of Mami.) 

The Brahmans are never in danger of pov- 
erty, as they have always been careful to make 
the efficacy of all rites which they administer 
dependent upon the gifts with which they are 
accompanied. In an emergency the Brahman 
is directed to obey the following rule : " Against 
misfortune let him preserve his wealth ; at the 
expense of his wealth let him preserve his wife ; 
but let him at all events preserve himself, even 
at the hazard of his wife and his riches. " 

There are four stages in the life of the Brah- 
man as laid down in the Code of Manu : 

1. The investiture of the sacred thread, 
which signifies second birth, in his eighth year. 

2. The married state. 

3. The hermit life. 

4. The devotee. 

The sacred cord, in the case of the Brahman, 

122 *7X CHMIST1 

consists of three slender cotton threads, each 
consisting of three finer threads tightly twisted 
into one, and tied together in a sacred knot 
of peculiar construction. The cord is worn 
over the left shoulder and allowed to hang 
down diagonally across the body to the right 
hip. So soon as the Hindu boy has been made 
regenerate by the solemn putting on of this 
mystic symbol, his religious education and 
spiritual life are held to begin. It is only after 
he has been invested with the sacred thread 
that he has a right to the title " Twice-born," 
or can read or recite the Veda, or be known by 
the name Brahman. 

The four original divisions of caste have been 
almost infinitely subdivided, the Brahman caste 
alone being divided into 1886 subcastes. 


There is in India a large class of devotees, 
drawn in part but by no means altogether from 
the Brahman caste. These ascetics do no work, 
do not teach, do good to no one. Their lives 
are spent in wandering from shrine to shrine, 
almost if not entirely naked, their bodies 
smeared with ashes, begging gifts. Self-in- 
flicted cruelties of an appalling character are 
common among them ; the most abnormal of 
these, hanging from hooks thrust through the 
flesh, has been prohibited by the English gov- 
ernment. Most of these devotees have reduced 


themselves to a mental condition bordering on 
idiocy. The milder form of asceticism from 
which these fakirs have drawn their revolting 
practices is known as Yoga, a system of philos- 
ophy unworthy the name, the aim of which is 
the union of the human soul with the Supreme 
by the suppression of all thought, by intense 
concentration on nothing, and the constant repe- 
tition of the mystical word " Om." 


As we look back over the conditions, racial, 
social, religious, here so rapidly sketched, India 
seems to lie before us, vast, dusky, unintelligi- 
ble, peopled by swarming races of enfeebled 
men and oppressed women. Out of dimness 
and confusion incoherent voices reach us, wail- 
ing, mocking, imploring; spirits that peep and 
mutter flit through the gloom; famine, pesti- 
lence, and crime glide by like spectres; in myste- 
rious temples silent priestesses attend upon rites 
which no man can name ; cruelty, oppression, 
the lethargy of fatalism, lie like a pall over the 
great gray land. The spirit sinks under the 
almost hopeless gloom. 

" At last I heard a voice upon the slope 
Cry to the summit, ( Is there any hope ? ' 
To which an answer peal'd from that high land, 
But in a tongue no man could understand : 
And on the glimmering limit far withdrawn 
God made Himself an awful rose of dawn." 



The great majority of the population of India con- 
sists of idolaters, blindly attached to doctrines and rites 
which, considered merely with reference to the temporal 
interests of mankind, are in the highest degree pernicious. 
In no part of the world has a religion ever existed more 
unfavorable to the moral and intellectual health of our 
race. The Brahmanical mythology is so absurd that it 
necessarily debases every mind which receives it as truth ; 
and with this absurd mythology is bound up an absurd 
system of physics, an absurd geography, an absurd 
astronomy. NOT is this form of paganism more favor- 
able to art than to science. Through the whole Hindu 
pantheon you will look in vain for anything resembling 
those beautiful and majestic forms which stood in the 
shrines of ancient Greece. All is hideous and grotesque 
and ignoble. As this superstition is of all superstitions 
the most irrational and the most inelegant, so it is of all 
superstitions the most immoral. Emblems of vice are 
objects of public worship. The courtesans are as much 
a part of the establishment of the temple, as much the 
ministers of the gods, as the priests. Acts of vice are 
acts of public worship. Crimes against life, crimes 
against property, are not only permitted but enjoined by 
this odious theology. But for our interference, human 
victims would still be offered to the Ganges, and the 
widow would still be laid on the pile with the corps of 
her husband, and burned alive by her own children. It 
is by the command and under the special protection 
of one of the most powerful goddesses that the Thugs 
join themselves to the unsuspecting traveller, make 
friends with him, slip the noose round his neck, plunge 
their knives into his eyes, hide Mm in the earth, and 
divide his money and baggage. LOKD MACAULAY, 
Member of the Supreme Council of Calcutta, 1834-1888. 


I have lived so long in a land where the people "wor- 
ship cows, that I do not make much of the differences 
which separate Christians from Christians. 



To live for three or four years in a society in which 
men and women meet, not as masters and slaves, but as 
friends and companions in which feminine culture adds 
grace and beauty to the lives of men ; to live in a society 
in which the prosaic hours of hard work are relieved by 
the companionship of a sweet and educated wife, sister, or 
mother, is the most necessary discipline required by our 
Indian youths in order that they may be able to shake 
off their old notions and to look upon an accomplished 
womanhood as the salt of human society which preserves 
it from moral decay. There is a very pernicious notion 
prevalent in India, that a free intercourse between the 
sexes leads to immorality. I confess that before I visited 
England I believed there was some truth in this notion. 
But now I believe no such thing. My own impression is 
that the chief safety-valve of public and private morality 
is the free intercourse between the sexes. This is the 
sore need of India, and we hope the purdah will soon be 
rent in twain and woman be emancipated. 


I have lived in Zenanas and can speak from experi- 
ence of what the lives of secluded women can be, the 
intellect so dwarfed that a woman of twenty or thirty is 
more like a child, while all the worst passions of human 
nature are developed and stimulated; jealousy, envy, 
murderous hate, intrigue, running to such an extent that 
in some countries I have hardly ever been in a woman's 


house without being asked for drugs to disfigure the 
favorite wife, or take away her son's life. This request 
has been made of me nearly one hundred times. 


Hinduism is perhaps the only system of belief that is 
worse than having no religion at all. 



" We wish to note with great pleasure and thankful- 
ness that on the viceroy's tour through southern India 
he was nowhere greeted by the nautch girl. She used to 
be everywhere. It seemed as if we had lost the faculty 
of rejoicing in anything without dancing-girls. The 
nautch is a relic of the barbaric age, when greatness was 
measured by luxury and voluptuousness. It is devoutly 
to be wished that the precedent introduced in Lord 
Curzon's tour may be followed in all future receptions of 
viceroys and governors, and that India will show to the 
world how she can honor greatness without dishonoring 
womanhood. From the Indian Reformer. 


A wife is half the man, his truest friend, 

A loving wife is a perpetual spring 

Of virtue, pleasure, wealth ; a faithful wife 

Is his best aid in seeking heavenly bliss ; 

A sweetly speaking wife is a companion 

In solitude, a father in advice., 

A mother in all seasons of distress, 

A rest in passing through life's wilderness. 



Those believers who sit still at home, not having any 
hurt, and those who employ their fortune and their per- 
sons for the religion of God, shall not be held equal, God 
hath preferred those who employ their fortunes and their 
persons in that cause to a degree of honor above those 
who sit at home. Koran. 


I once witnessed a very imposing spectacle in the 
great mosque at Delhi on the Moslem sabbath. Several 
hundred Indian Mohammedans were repeating their 
prayers in concert. They were in their best attire and 
fresh from their ablutions, and their concerted genuflec- 
tions, the subdued murmur of their many voices, and the 
general solemnity of their demeanor, rendered the whole 
service most impressive. It contrasted strongly with the 
spectacle which I witnessed a little later in the temple of 
Siva, in Benares. The unspeakable worship of the linga ; 
the scattering of rice and flowers, and the pouring of liba- 
tions before this symbol ; the hanging of garlands on the 
horns of sacred bulls, and that by women; the rushing 
to and fro tracking the filth of the sacred stables into the 
trodden ooze of rice and flowers which covered the tem- 
ple pavements ; the drawing and sipping of water from 
the adjacent cesspool known as the sacred well; the shout- 
ing and striking of bells, and the general frenzy of the 
people all this could be considered as nothing short of 
wild and depraved orgies. If we must choose, give us 
Islam in contrast with the Siva worship of India. Yet 
Islam has no salvation, no scheme of grace, no great 
physician. F. F. 


Below us, to the right, in the rough Bhotia village, 
stands a little Buddhist temple, a common-looking native 
house, its single shabby inside room decked round with 


paintings black with, age and unintelligible, its three 
tawdry idols hidden behind a glass, and half invisible in 
the darkness, its shelves of Buddhist scriptures thick -with 
dust, its prayer wheels slowly grinding round " Om~tnam- 

Again in thought we stand upon the threshold watch- 
ing the lined, dull, hopeless face of the priest as with a 
sweep of his hand he sets a row of prayer wheels, each 
about a foot in height, spinning like teetotums. In the 
entry stands a heavy, chestlike wheel, six or eight feet 
high, with two iron projections, which ring a bell each 
time it turns. The pleasant old wheel turner sets it in 
motion with an indifferent face, chanting as it slowly 
revolves. We glance into the dark interior, and back at 
the monotonous grinding of the great wheel with its bell, 
and the sing-song mechanical functions of the priests. A 
sense of the poverty and blindness of the faith these 
represent comes over us, and we think what it means 
that just such temples are the only houses of prayer to 
be found throughout Thibet, Bhotan, and Nepal. 



Our cattle reel beneath the yoke they bear, 
The earth is iron and the skies are brass, 

And faint with fervor of the flaming air 
The languid hours pass. 

The weE is dry beneath the village trees, 
The young wheat withers ere it reach a span, 

And belts of blinding sand show cruelly 
Where once the river ran. 

Pray, brothers, pray, but to no earthly king, 
Lift up your hands above the blighted grain, 

Look westward ; if they please, the gods shall bring 
Their mercy With the rain. 


Look westward ; bears the blue no brown cloud bank ? 

fay, it is written wherefore shall we fly ? 
On our own field and by our cattle's flank 

Lie down, lie down to die. RXJDYARD KIPLING. 


The only persons of white blood in India who know 
what is actually going on are the missionaries, for they 
go about quietly everywhere, see everything, and cannot 
be deceived nor put off the scent by the native subor- 
dinates. . . . Yet what a missionary says would not be 
accepted by the government if it contradicted the reports 
of its own agents. ... It was my great good fortune 
to be thrown with the missionaries from the start, and 
I was able to compare their methods and knowledge 
with those of the government people. It is as if you 
should sit with the audience in the front of a theatre 
and witness the performance from that point of view, 
and then should go behind the scenes and see the reality. 
The first is the posture of the government people j the 
latter that of the missionaries. It is the government's 
misfortune, not its fault. 

When I returned, after my tour to Bombay, and made 
the statement that eight million persons had already died 
of famine and disease directly caused thereby, I was met 
with blank incredulity. But I know, and the mission- 
aries know, that the statement is within the truth. 
Eight millions nearly twice the population of London ! 
Think if you can of this number of persons slowly turn- 
ing into skeletons and dying for lack of food and no 
one knowing anything about it. And were it not for 
the heroic and unselfish efforts that England is making, 
this stupendous total would be multiplied by two or even 



I, India's Great Famines and Plagues ; their Causes 

and Preventive Measures. 

II. Comparison between the Pearl Mosque at Agra 
(Mohammedan), the Shwe Dagon at Rangoon 
(Buddhist), and the Great Pagoda of Tan j ore 
(Hindu), and their Respective Worships. 
Ill, Hindu Characteristics : Physical, Mental, Moral. 
IY. Famous Festivals and Pilgrimages. 
V. Benares the Holy City and " Mother Gunga." 
VI. Animal and Plant Worship. 
VII. Everyday Life of English Residents. 
VIII. Hindu and Mohammedan Social Customs ; Mar- 
riage and Funeral Rites, etc. 
IX. Life behind the Purdah or in the Zenana. 
X. Village Life. 
XI. Indian Arts and Crafts. 

XII. The Attitude of the Indian Peoples toward their 
British Conquerors. 



-Arnold's "India Revisited," V, VI, VII. 
Chamberlain's " In the Tiger Jungle," HI, X. 
Denning's " Mosaics from India." For all but II, XII. 
Lady Duiferin's "Our Vice-regal Life in India," III, 

Fergusson's " Indian Architecture," II. 
Graham's " Great Temples of India, Ceylon, and Burma," 


Guinness's Across India," I, III, V, VIII, IX. 
Hawthorne's Papers on India, Cosmopolitan Magazine, 

Vol. XXIII, for I, III, X. 


Kipling's Indian Tales," "Plain Tales from the, Hills," 

The Day's Work," I, III, V, VII, XII. 
Kipling's Kim," HI, VIII, X, XII. 
Kipling's Poems, III, VII, XII. 

Leonoweus's u Life and Travel in India," III, VII, VIII, IX. 
Maxwell's " The Bishop's Conversion," VII. 
Padnianji's " Once Hindn, now Christian," III, VI, VIII, X. 
Howe's Everyday Life in India," I, IV, VIII, XL 
Russell's " Village Work in India," VIII, X, XL 
Savory's "British Sportswoman in India," III, VII, IX. 
Steevens's "In India." For all'but V, IX. 
Thoburn's " India and Malaysia," III, VII, IX, XII. 
Wilkins's " Daily Life and Work in India." For all but 

Sir M. Williams's " Religious Life and Thought in India." 

For all but I, II, VII, XII. 
Sir M. Williams's " India and the Indians," III, IV, VIII, 

X. XL 


1st Century A.D. (Legendary.) The Apostle Thomas. 

180-190 . Pairteeuus. 

BQOetseq. Nestorian Missions. 

635 . . . Three Persian Crosses. 

6-10-1300 Islam supreme in Western Asia. 

1321 . . . The Four Martyrs of Thana. 

1500 . . . First Portuguese Missionaries. 

1542 . . . Francis Xavier. 

1580 . . . Introduction of the Inquisition into Portu- 
guese Missions at Goa. 

1600 . . . Akbar, a Patron of Christianity. 

1602-1612 Dutch Protestant Missions established. 

1606-1693 The Jesuit Fathers of Madura. 

1681 ... First English Church founded. 

1705 . . , First Danish Lutheran Missionary, Ziegen- 


1749 . . . Schwartz, " the Christian.'* 

1757 . . . British Empire begun. 

1788 . . . David Brown plans the Church Mission. 

1792 . . . Formation of Baptist Missionary Society 

in England. 

1793 . . . William Carey sails for Calcutta. 
1793-1813 Active Opposition of East India Company 

to the spread of the Gospel. 

1800 . . . First Hindu Convert baptized by Carey. 
1805 . . . Henry Martyn. 
1812 . . . First American Missionaries. Burma and 


1830 . . . Alexander Duff. 
1833 . . . British Government declares itself neutral 

regarding Introduction of Christianity. 
1835 . . . American Presbyterian Missionaries enter 

the Punjab. 
1850 . . . First Medical Mission. 

1856 . . . First Methodist Mission in Bareilly. 

1857 . . . Martyrs of the Mutiny. 

1859 . . . First Call for Week of Prayer. 

1861 . . . Great Ingathering of Kols. 

1870-1880 Great Ingathering of Telugus. 

1886 . . . The Student Volunteer Movement at North- 
field, Mass. 

1896 . . . Formation of Student Volunteer Movement 
of India and Ceylon. 



Later a sweet voice, Love thy neighbor said ; 
Then first the bounds of neighborhood outspread 
Beyond all confines of old ethnic dread. 


Scythian, Arabian, Tatar, Persian, 
and European invaders, spurred on by lust of 
power, lust of blood, and lust of gold, were ex- 
ploiting India for their own purposes, silently 
arid without observation another invasion was 
going on. The great enlightener, Love, love 
human, and divine, was shedding its rays 
athwart the thick darkness of India. 

In foreign missions the church of Christ has 
found its touchstone, its supreme test, its ulti- 
mate vindication. The passion for humanity 
and the passion for God mingle here to form 
the noblest energy thus far expressed in terms 
of human action. In this adventure men and 
women who knew they had souls and were 
very sure of God, from the Apostolic age to 
the twentieth century, have filled up the meas- 
ure of Christ's sufferings, laying down their 
lives, not for their friends, but for those who 
counted them aliens. They have not been the 


world's favorite heroes; but neither was their 

At the foundation of this self-devotion lies 
the profound, unchangeable conviction of the 
Christian consciousness that the religion of 
Christ is not an ethnic religion, a religion for 
a single nation or for a peculiar phase of civili- 
zation, but a universal religion for every man 
in every age and every clime. 

"What India needs," said a famous Hindu, 
"is Christ." Let us study how and by what 
manner of men Christ came to India. 


[In "Via Christi," the initial volume in this series, 
we have already become familiar with the achievements 
of the earliest heroes of Christian missions in India.] 

fSt. Thomas 

According to tradition, the Apostle Thomas, 
after the Day of Pentecost, carried the tidings 
of the world's redemption to India, and there 
suffered martyrdom. It is a well-established 
fact that two eminent Christian leaders named 
Thomas were known in southern India during 
the first centuries of the Christian era, and it 
is not impossible that Thomas Didymus did 
in very deed carry the gospel thither. The 
legend, however, lacks confirmation, although 
St. Thomas's Mount, near Madras, is popularly 
held to be the burial-place of the Apostle. 


Roman, Jewish, and Christian Colonies 

We Lave authentic basis for belief that a 
Jewish Christian colony existed in India from 
the latter part of the second century. In 
those days a Roman fleet sailed regularly once 
a year from a port on the Red Sea to India, 
and Jews and Jewish Christians going out by 
this route established settlements on the west 
coast. Hundreds of Roman coins have been 
discovered in South India, many of which bear 
the name of Augustus, and many more of Tibe- 
rius and other emperors, but of none later than 



About 190 A.I). Pantenus, a learned and 
devout Christian of Alexandria, hearing that 
there was a community of Christians in India, 
resolved to visit them. It is certified that he 
reached the Malabar coast, and that he found 
among these Indian Christians the Hebrew or 
Aramaic gospel of St. Matthew. In 547 we 
have the interesting record of Cosmas, a mer- 
chant of Alexandria who visited India and 
wrote Ms impresssions in a curious book called 
" Christian Topography." He testifies to the 
existence of Persian Christians in Ceylon, Soco- 
tra, and Malabar. 

Syrian Christians 

In the third century the Nestorian or Persian 
Christians established missions on the eastern 


or Coromandel coast of South. India. A most 
interesting memorial of their work was discov- 
ered near Madras, and in an old church at Kot- 
tayam in 1547, in the shape of three Persian 
crosses bearing old Syriac inscriptions. The 
first-named is a slab bearing a cross in relief, 
built into the wall behind the altar in a church 
on St. Thomas's Mount. Those at Kottayam 
are similar. The inscriptions have been thus 
rendered into English : 

" Let me not glory except in the cross of our 
Lord Jesus Christ who is the true Messiah and 
Grod alone and Holy Q-host." 

These impressive witnesses, than which none 
could be more trustworthy, belong to the 
seventh century A.D. It will be noted that it 
was the coasts of South India, Malabar, and 
Coromandel which were earliest reached by the 
gospel. As a remnant of this pioneer mission- 
ary work, there still remain in India over three 
hundred thousand "Syrian Christians." 

The conquest of India by the Mussulmans, 
beginning in the seventh century and continu- 
ing in the Mughal Empire throughout the Mid- 
dle Ages, effectually checked the progress of 

Portuguese Roman Catholic Missions 

In 1498 European invasion of India began 
with the Portuguese Vasco da Gama, and the 
year 1500 marks the beginning of Roman. 


Catholic missions. Let the student of the 
period of the Reformation in Europe in the 
sixteenth century bear in mind the part played 
by Spain in that bitter contest, and he will be 
prepared for the later developments of Portu- 
guese evangelization. 

Goa was the capital of Portuguese India, and 
became the seat of the bishopric and the centre 
of Roman Catholic influence. The Franciscans 
and Dominicans were early upon the scene, the 
first half of the fourteenth century being a time 
of great missionary activity among them. 


The Dominican Jordanus stands out as a 
true and zealous missionary. He left a curious 
and interesting book entitled " The Wonders of 
the East," in which he describes the Parsis, the 
aborigines, the Hindu castes and idol worship, 
and the iconoclasm of the fierce Mohammedan 
invaders from the time of Sultan Mahmud. A 
strange prophetic belief among the natives he 
thus indicates, "The pagans of this India 
have prophecies of their own that we Latins 
are to subjugate the whole world." 

Four Martyrs of Thana 

The martyrdom of the companions of Jor- 
danus, the four young u wrestlers for Christ," 
Thomas, James, Demetrius, and Peter, at Thana, 
in 1821, by the Mohammedans, forms a noble 


and pathetic episode in the annals of Romish 
missions in India. Odoric the Bohemian, a 
wandering missionary, carried the ashes of the 
four martyrs on his journeyings in Asia for 
fourteen years. 

^Francis Earner 

The worst and the best of Roman Catholic 
missionary energy is condensed into the pas- 
sionate, self-sacrificing, but imperious genius of 
St. Francis Xavier. 

This famous Jesuit saint landed at Goa, 
May 6, 1543, in his thirty-seventh year. The 
story of his going through the streets ringing a 
bell to call the people to come out to hear him 
preach is familiar. For three years Xavier 
toiled devotedly as a missionary in South India, 
baptizing thousands, among whom were a large 
number of infants to whom he eagerly desired 
to extend the saving grace of the sacrament. 
Xavier's whole line of action was based on this 
theory, and to it is owing the large number of 
nominal converts enrolled by him. 

The Inquisition in India 

In 1545 Xavier requested of John III of 
Portugal the favor of introducing the inquisi- 
tion into his Indian dominions. This was done 
in 1560, and it continued in action with its cus- 
tomary diabolical cruelty until 1816. Xavier 
died on the 2d of December, 1552, on the barren 


island of Sanchiaii near Canton, China. His 
body, after various burials and removals, was 
taken to Goa, and is liere still safely kept 
(supposedly), being exhibited as a sacred relic 
from time to time. 

Philip II of Spain, who in 1595 had gained 
supremacy over Portugal, sent Menezes as 
archbishop to Goa. His name has been made 
infamous by his persecution of the Nestoriau 

Akbar and Christianity 

About the end of the sixteenth century, 
Geronimo Xavier, nephew of Francis, made his 
way from the Portuguese settlements north and 
east as far as Agra. This was in the time of 
the mighty Akbar, who, having among his 
wives a Christian convert, manifested a pro- 
nounced interest in the tenets of Christianity, 
and employed Xavier to write for him a history 
of Christ and Peter. As it is said of Akbar 
that he listened impartially to the arguments 
of the Brahman and the Mussulman, the Fire 
worshipper, the Jew, the Jesuit, and the sceptic, 
this fact was rather an incident than an event. 

The Malabar Scandals 

Among the successors of Xavier in South 
India were Robert de Nobili and John de 
Britto, who devised and carried out a scheme 
of imposture for securing the conversion of 


the Hindus, as strange as it was ill-judged. 
Mastering the Hindu philosophy and ritual, 
and the native dialects by long study and in 
strictest seclusion, they reappeared in Madras, 
claiming to be in one case a Brahman prince, in 
the other an incarnation of Brahma. These 
claims, sustained for a long period, supported 
by forgeries, constitute the famous Malabar 
scandals. De Britto died a victim to the rage 
of the Brahmans. 

Progress of Romanism in India 

Romanism, in spite of rents and schisms, has 
made great progress in India, chiefly in Madras 
and Bengal, and its adherents outnumber Prot- 
estant Christians almost two to one. Its spec- 
tacular ritual and processions, its sacrifice of the 
mass, its profusion of images, pictures, and sym- 
bols, its prayers to numberless patron saints 
presiding over specific departments of life, and 
above all its ascetic priesthood and virgin wor- 
ship, combine to make its appeal a comparatively 
easy one to the followers of Brahmauism. Both 
systems have the common characteristic of com- 
bining the subtlest mysticism of theory with 
gross idolatry of practice. The Roman Catholic 
clergy of Hindustan comprise an archbishop of 
Goa, nineteen bishops who are vicars apostolic, 
and nearly nine hundred priests. The church has 
been divided in allegiance between Portuguese 
dominance and the Propaganda of Rome. 



Dutch Indian missions were wholly Protes- 
tant, and are contemporaneous with the rise 
of Dutch Oriental commerce; but they seem in 
these earlier centuries to have been strangely 
mingled with commercial methods and mo- 
tives, and were without permanent value. The 
process of making converts was conducted "in 
blocks," the natives being forced for support 
to confess Christianity, and receiving baptism 
by the thoiisand,* with no evidence of sincerity. 
When, in 1796, the English overpowered the 
Dutch in India, there were nearly half a mil- 
lion professed converts of the Dutch Reformed 
Church in Ceylon ; but in 1850 it is said that 
not a single congregation remained. 

Danish Missions 

While Portuguese Jesuits were disgracing 
the name of Christ by their fantastic frauds 
and fanatical persecutions, while Holland was 
following a futile commercial policy of whole- 
sale evangelization, Denmark was quietly lay- 
ing in its eastern possessions the foundation of 
the great missionary movement of to-day in 
purity of faith and righteousness. The incep- 
tion of this work was due to the earnest efforts 
of Dr. Liitkens, court chaplain to Frederick 
IV, who set before the king the duty of giv- 
ing the gospel to Ms Indian dependency. 


While the Danish Mission, as such, did not 
prove permanent, owing, perhaps, to the tolera- 
tion of caste customs in converts, it exerted a 
lasting influence, laid a strong foundation for 
the work of Carey and his associates, and was 
made forever glorious by the names of the 
great Lutheran missionaries Ziegenbalg, Pliit- 
schau, and Schwartz. 

The first centre of the Danish movement was 
Tranquebar, on the Madras coast, where, among 
the Tamil people, Ziegenbalg and Pliitschau 
began their work in 1706. These devoted men 
were not, however, Danes, but German-Luther- 
ans, for Liitkens failed to find in all Denmark 
men ready and fitted for such a work. " Seek, 
then, for men in Germany," said Frederick IV. 
In Werder, twenty miles from Berlin, hard at 
work in his parish, was found the right man, 
Bartholomew Ziegenbalg. Pliitschau, a man 
of like mind, was named to be his companion 
by Francke of Halle, and both accepted the 
appointment as a call from God. They were 
later joined by Griindler and Schultze, who 
completed the work of translation of the whole 
Bible into Tamil, the first Indian Bible, in 1727, 
two hundred years after Luther made his trans- 
lation. Ziegenbalg, who died at thirty-six, had 
completed the translation of the New Testament, 
and left behind a grammar and dictionary of the 
Tamil tongue. His name must forever shed 
lustre on the Lutheran Church of Germany, 


as that of a second great pioneer of Biblical 

The efforts of German Lutherans under 
Danish patronage, " the Halle missionaries," as 
they are called, were continued by the greatest 
of them all, the immortal "Father Schwartz," 
whose portrait has been vividly drawn for us 
in "Via Christi." He extended the work to 
Tanjore, and before the dawn of the nineteenth 
century there were forty thousand converts in 
the Tranquebar Mission, With the death of 
Schwartz, 1798, ends the first and preparatory 
period of Protestant missions in India. 


It will be noted by reference to the chrono- 
logical table at the beginning of this chapter, 
that Portuguese missions were nearly three 
hundred years old, Dutch nearly two hundred, 
and that nearly a century elapsed after the 
period of the first Danish missionary before 
England made its initial movement toward 
Christianizing India. 

Meanwhile the English had become supreme 
through a large part of South India, having 
expelled the last ensign of the French nation 
from the Coromandel coast ; Plassey had been 
fought ; the presidencies of Madras, of Calcutta, 
and of Bombay were securely British, and many 
other provinces were tributary, while Lord Corn- 


wallis, as governor-general of India, was reviv- 
ing in pomp and power (1786-1793) traditions 
of the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. 

Hast India Company and Idolatry 

It would naturally have been expected that 
the rise into supremacy of a power so thoroughly 
Christian and Protestant as that of the British 
would from the first have brought Christianity 
and its moral standards in its train. The mo- 
nopoly under Clive of the opium traffic; the 
notorious favoring of heathenism as a part of 
the avowed policy of the East India Company 
of non-interference with native religion; the 
official maintenance of heathen temples and 
honoring of idols, and the systematic repres- 
sion of all missionary labor, are the strange 
and unnatural facts which confront us. The 
selfish and cynical attitude of the East India 
Company's government toward the religious 
condition of its new empire can be summed 
up in Gibbon's words concerning the old 
Roman Empire, "The various religions were 
regarded by the people as equally true, by 
the philosophers as equally false, by the gov- 
ernment as equally profitable." 

William Wilberforee 

In the midst of the material selfishness of his 
people and time towers the form of William 
Wilberforce, who led the great struggle in the 


British Parliament which, in 1813, resulted in 
an act stating that "such means shall be em- 
ployed as are calculated for the introduction of 
useful knowledge among the natives of India 
and for their moral and religious elevation.'* 
Even so mild and inoffensive a measure as this 
was carried through against stubborn resistance, 
and while a few missionaries were admitted at 
this time, the government steadily refused to 
admit others until 1833. At this time the 
government also by a charter put a stop to 
official endowment of idolatry, and declared 
itself explicitly " neutral," meaning that while 
it would not suppress idolatry, it would no 
longer support it. 

Chaplains of the Anglican Church 

The first English church was founded in 
Calcutta in 1681 for English residents; a few 
chaplains of the Church of England were sent 
out through the century following, and the 
Danish Protestant missionaries were tolerated. 
The English chaplains unfortunately were fre- 
quently men of careless life and unworthy char- 
acter, and the conduct of the great mass of the 
English was such as to lead the natives to 
believe Christianity the religion of the devil. 
It is an old proverb among Anglo-Indians that 
"the Ten Commandments cease to be in force 
beyond the Isthmus of Suez." During this 
long, dark period there were among the chap- 


lains of the East India Company five excep- 
tional men whose names deserve to be held 
in lasting remembrance : these were David 
Brown, Claudius Buchanan, Henry Martyn, 
Thomas Thomason, and Daniel Corrie. These 
earnest and consecrated East Indian chaplains 
were mainly proteges of Charles Simeon of 
Cambridge, the greatest evangelical leader in 
the Anglican Church in his day. Among them 
the name of Henry Martyn always shines with 
peculiar lustre, by reason of his unconquerable 
spirit valiantly struggling with physical weak- 
ness, his surpassing religious genius, and his 
early death. In this connection we may make 
mention of Reginald Heber, second bishop of 
the See of Calcutta at a later date (from 1822 
to 1826), who united the zeal and piety of the 
Christian with the accomplishments of the 
scholar and the gentleman. Few men have 
ever won in equal measure the general esteem 
of society in India. 


Discouraged by public sentiment at home and 
the prohibitive policy of the company on the 
field, English missionaries were late in appear- 
ing. But their advent in India, when at last it 
came, by common consent, marks the actual be- 
ginning of the great Protestant missionary move- 
ment of modern times. The name of the first 
English missionary, William Carey, is the most 


illustrious in the annals of Protestant missions ; 
and the English Church Missionary Society (the 
0. M. S.), representing the evangelical wing of 
that body, is to-day the strongest and most effi- 
cient organization of its kind in the world. 

~ The English were worth waiting for ; and well 
did Southey say, "The first step toward winning 
the natives to our religion is to show them that 
we have one." 

The Serampore Triad, Carey, Harshman, and 

The determination of William Carey, the 
"consecrated cobbler" (himself a Baptist), to 
preach the gospel to the Hindus, led to the 
formation, in 1792, of the Baptist Missionary 
Society. Appointed by the society as its first 
missionary, Carey, then in his thirty-third year, 
sailed for India, June 18, 1798, accompanied by 
a Christian surgeon, John Thomas. At this 
time all Europeans not in public service were 
forbidden to set foot in the East India Company's 
territories in India without especial license. So 
inflexible was the official opposition to the en- 
trance of missionaries that Carey and Thomas, 
in order to avoid expulsion, were obliged, on 
arrival in Calcutta, to register as indigo planters 
and to engage in that occupation. "There," 
says Eugene Stock, " and in that capacity, lived 
for six years Carey, the one representative in 
India of the missionary zeal of Christian Eng- 


land; and in that obscure one may say igno- 
minious way began English missions in her 
great dependency." In 1799 Joshua Marshman 
and William "Ward, with others, under appoint- 
ment by the English Baptist Society, landed in 
Calcutta ; but being instantly ordered to leave 
the country, they took refuge in the friendly 
Danish settlement of Serampore, sixteen miles 
above Calcutta, on the right bank of the Hughli 
River. Here they were soon joined by Carey, 
glacl to escape from British hostility, and the 
great " Serampore Triad " was formed. In 1800 
the first Hindu convert, Krishna Pal, was bap- 
tized. The Serampore men, who may be justly 
regarded as missionary statesmen and apostles, 
broke wellnigh every path which has since be- 
came a highroad of missionary activity. They 
laid the foundation for almost every method of 
subsequent missionary endeavor, whether in 
school or college, in organizing native preach- 
ers and lay workers, or in exercising the right 
of petition against the crimes committed in the 
name of the Hindu religion. Above all, how- 
ever, ranks their distinguished and scholarly 
labor in translating the Bible into the ver- 
nacular. In view of their limited education, 
their marvellous attainments in this particular 
suggest an especial divine endowment. Carey, 
whose success as a translator has won for him 
the title of "the Wycliffe of the East," com- 
pleted a Bengali dictionary in three volumes, and 


translated tlie Bible, or some of its parts, into 
thirty-six dialects. He prepared grammars and 
dictionaries in the Sanskrit, Marathi, Bengali, 
Punjabi, and Telugu dialects. His fame as a 
botanist was second only to his reputation as a 
linguist. His whole long residence of forty-one 
years in India proved him a man of extraordinary 
intellectual power, accompanied with the rarest 
humility and most unfaltering devotion to his 
master, Jesus Christ, and with a consuming love 
for his fellow-men. Financially the Serampore 
Triad did what no three men since have done 
contributed by their efforts to the cause of mis- 
sions and India's elevation nearly half a million 
dollars, and this when the brotherhood of three 
families lived at the same table at a cost of five 
hundred dollars a year. It can fairly be said that 
the conceptions of Carey and his associates as to 
the introduction of Christianity among a pagan 
people have for a century dominated Protestant 

(i) Missionary organizations beginning work 
in India previous to 1857. 

Thus we see that the English Baptists en- 
tered India in 1793 ; the Congregationalists 
followed in 1798 ; the Church of England took 
up the work in 1807 ; the American Board, 
representing* the Congregationalists of the 
United States, in, 1812 ; the American Baptists 
in 1814, and the English Methodists the same 
year. The common origin of the American 


Board and the Baptist Missionary Union de- 
mand especial notice, as being the first of all 
American Protestant missionary organizations, 
and thus marking an epoch. 

When, in 1810, at the Theological Seminary 
at Andover, the "haystack " missionary heroes, 
Mill^ Richards, Rice, and Hall, met Adoniram 
Jtdson, a memorial was drawn up, signed by him 
and three others, asking the General Association 
of if assachusetts " whether they might .expect 
patronage and support from a missionary society 
in this country, or must commit themselves tog 
the direction of an European Society," The^ 
result was the formation of the American Boardc 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions in 1812,^ 
representing the American Congregationalists 
(A. B. C. F. M.), under whose auspices Hall, 
Nott, Rice, Judson, and Newell sailed for India. 
Two years later the avowal by Judson of his 
change of views on the subject and mode of 
baptism, and his own baptism at Calcutta, led 
to the creation of the American Baptist Mis- 
sionary Union (A. B. M. U.). 

The earliest mission of the American Board 
was that at Bombay, founded by Gordon Hall 
and his colleagues. From here the work has 
extended to Poona, Ahmednagar, Satara, and 
Sholapur, and is now known as the Marathi 
Mission. The Ceylon Mission, begun in 1816 
at Tillipally and Batticotta by Poor, Richards, 
and Meigs, is one of the firmest, strongest, and 


most thorough in India, and is preeminent for 
the character of its schools, and especially for 
Jaffna College, founded in 1872. The Madura 
Mission, among the Tamil people, was begun in 
1834 and is doing a noble work, largely of an 
educational character. Madras is the seat of 
the Tamil publishing work. The American 
Board has furnished India with many of its 
most distinguished, scholarly, and successful 
missionaries. In 1850 Rev. H. M. Scudder, 
M.D., son of John Scudder, having labored in 
connection with the American Board for some 
years, made a tour with Mr. Dulles of South 
India with a view to establishing an out-station. 
The result was the mission to Arcot, forever 
identified with the great Scudder family. Eight 
sons of Dr. John Scudder and many grandsons 
and granddaughters have devoted their lives to 
the salvation both of soul and body of India's 
millions. The Arcot Mission has passed into 
the hands of the Dutch Reformed Church of 
the United States. 

* American Baptist missions in India from the 
first were definitely confined to three vast but 
distinct regions. Of these the first, Burma, 
was visited by English Baptists, Chater, Mar- 
don, and Felix Carey, as early as 1807 ; but it 
was with the coming of Adoniram Judson, "the 
greatest of American missionaries," in 1813, 
that the work of evangelization really began. 
The genius of its founder, the exquisite person- 


ality of Ann H. Judson, and the pathos of her 
noble life and of that of Sarah Boardman Jud- 
son, have cast a halo of unparalleled romance 
over this mission. Judson laid a foundation 
broad and deep, on which a mighty superstruc- 
ture has risen in this seat of Buddhism. At 
his death there were over seven thousand native 
Christians. Among about thirty stations the 
following may be named as most important, 
Rangoon, Maulmein, Bassein, Henzada, Toun- 
goo, and Mandalay. Judson's translation of 
the whole Bible into Burmese is a work of the 
highest permanent value. 

A most interesting feature of the Burmese Mis- 
sion is the work among the Karens. This peo- 
ple number many tribes (among whom are the 
Sgau Karens and Pwo Karens), for all of which 
the American Baptists carry on missions. The 
work was begun in 1828 by George Dana Board- 
man of the A. B. M. U. The first disciple to be 
baptized was Ko-thah-byu, formerly a slave of 
reckless, dangerous character, who became by the 
mighty regenerating power of God a faithful, 
humble laborer for the conversion of his race. 
The death of Boardman, after his brief but noble 
term of service, forms a singularly pathetic 
event. The persecution of Christian Karens in 
1852 by the Burnaans, and the heroic devotion 
of Justus Vinton and his wife, are episodes of 
marked interest. There are now about five hun- 
dred Karen churches in Burma, with thirty-five 


thousand members, thousands having confessed 
Christ under Vinton's ministrations. They are 
distinguished for their zeal, their steadfastness 
under persecution, and their spirit of self-help. 
They have built and endowed a hospital ; have 
endowed their own high school, "the best in 
all Burma ; " their churches are kept under 
strict discipline ; their pastors are thoroughly 
trained; the system of benevolence reaches 
every church member, and all in all they com- 
pare favorably with the country churches of 
the United States. 

In Assam, to which the eminent Nathan 
Brown went in 1836, the Baptists labor 
almost alone among the Garo, Naga, Kanari, 
and other aboriginal tribes, doing a great print- 
ing work in native dialect at Sibsagor, and 
holding six: other important stations, with sixty- 
nine churches, most of which are self-support- 
ing. Perhaps the most noteworthy achievement 
in Assam has been the reduction to writing 
by the missionaries of six different languages 
hitherto without alphabet. 

The third Baptist territory, as it may be 
called, is in southeastern India, among the 
Telugu people, with Madras, Ongole, and 
Nellore as centres. Work was begun here also 
in 1836, by Samuel Day, and was carried on 
later by Lyman Jewett. The Nellore Mission, 
the centre of the Telugu work, remained so un- 
productive for seventeen years that the mission- 


ary Union in 1853 was on the point of formally 
abandoning it, at their annual meeting at Al- 
bany, 1ST. Y., when a thrilling hymn, naming 
Nellore the "Lone Star Mission," written by 
Dr. S. F. Smith, the author of "America," 
caused a sudden revulsion of feeling, and it 
was unanimously voted to reenf orce the mission. 
Events have more than justified this action, as 
the great revivals under John E. Clough, which 
began in 1867, and reached their climax ten 
years later, have rendered the Telugn work one 
of the most marvellous mass movements in the 


history of Indian missions. In a single day 
1000 brought their idols to the missionaries 
in Ongole to be destroyed, on another day 
2222 were baptized, and at one time 8691 
within the space of ten days. 

Ceylon was an early field, being first entered 
by Protestants in 1812, when English Baptists 
began their work at Colombo, being reeiiforced 
later by English Wesleyans as well as by the 
missionaries of the American Board. 

In 1835 the Freewill Baptist Society of the 
United States sent out four missionaries, Mr. 
Noyes and Mr. Phillips and their wives, who 
planted a station in Orissa. In this province 
much admirable work has been done, notably 
the reduction of the Santal tongue to a written 
language by Mr. Phillips, for which he received 
the thanks of the British government. Centres 
have been established at Balasore, Jellasore, 


Midnapore, and other points. At Jellasore an 
asylum lias been founded for sick and suffering 
pilgrims. The work abounds in interesting 

The German Lutheran Society of America in 
1842, four years after the death of the noble 
Rhenius, selected the Kistna district, north of 
Nellore, as a field of labor. While this society 
owed its origin to the unfortunate complication 
of Lutheran missionaries working under Episco- 
pal authority, and the misunderstanding arising 
therefrom, their course of action was thoroughly 
Christian and magnanimous, and their work 
has been one of marked power and fruitful- 
ness. Their first missionary, Heyer, settled at 
Guntur, It will be observed that these early 
missionary organizations were all established 
on strictly denominational lines, as seemed un- 
avoidable according to the spirit of the time, 
when great emphasis was laid upon divisive 
distinctions. One striking, although in the end 
unsuccessful, exception must be noticed. The 
London Missionary Society was formed in 1795, 
three years later than the Baptist Missionary 
Society which owed its life to Carey's call. 
This later society was formed by a union of 
Presbyterians, Independents, and members of 
the Church of England, and it gave out the fol- 
lowing manifesto: "That its design is not to 
send Presbyterianism, Episcopalianism, or any 
other form of church government (about which 

156 irx CHRISTI 

there may be differences of opinion among 
serious persons), but the glorious gospel of the 
blessed God to the heathen, and that it shall 
be left (as it ought to be left) to the minds of 
the persons whom God may call to the fellow- 
ship of his Son from among them, to assume 
for themselves such church government as to 
them shall appear most agreeable to the word 
of God." 

This plan of procedure, thus nobly stated, 
failed through the withdrawal after a time of 
the Episcopalians and Presbyterians. 

In 1834 began the labor of the Basel Mission 
in Malabar. In 1835 American Presbyterian 
missions were begun at Ludhiana, in the Pun- 
jab, by John C. Lowrie and "William Keed, 
reenforced in 1849 by James Wilson, C. W. 
Forman, and the illustrious John Newton. 
Forman spent forty-six, Newton fifty-six, years 
in India, and both have left an indelible im- 
press on the Punjab, The Presbyterian Church 
now carries on three important missions, 
Ludhiana, Farukhabad (started at Allahabad), 
and the Western India Mission. The medical 
work is especially remarkable, and there are 
institutions for lepers at Sabatha, Ainbala, and 
Saharanpur. The first was established by 
John Newton. The hospitals at Miraj, Alla- 
habad, Ambala, and Ferozepore are finely 
equipped and manned. Other important sta- 
tions in the Punjab are Fategarh, Lahore, 


Dehra Dun, and Jullunder. There are five 
presbyteries. In the year 1856 Isiclor Lowen- 
thal, a converted Polish Jew and a graduate 
of Princeton, pushed the work up toward the 
Afghan frontier as far as Peshawar. A dis- 
tinguished Brahman convert, Kali Chatterjee, 
has for years conducted work at Hoshyarpore, 
John H. Morrison, of the Ludhiana Mission, 
was known as " The Lion of the Punjab," by 
reason of the fearlessness of his preaching ; 
while 6f John Newton it was said, "He was 
one of the holiest and best-beloved men the 
Punjab has ever seen." 

In 1841 the Leipsic Lutherans established 
work in the Carnatic, the Irish Presbyterians 
in Gujerat, the Welsh Calvinists in Bengal, 
and the Berlin Mission in Behar. 

In 1846 the German Mission to the Kols of 
Chota Nagpore, two hundred miles west of Cal- 
cutta, was started. 

In 1855 the Moravians established their mis- 
sion in Kyelang, in the foothills of the Hima- 
layas, where they have done most valuable and 
heroic work. The fact that in this body of 
Christians one out of every fifty-eight commu- 
nicants is a foreign missionary gives them a 
place of noble distinction in Christendom. 

The Scotch United Presbyterians began their 
labors in 1855 in the province of Rajputana, a 
province more extensive, in area than Great 
Britain and Ireland, and the seat of the Raj- 


puts, the famous hereditary Aryan chieftains. 
Their work has extended from Rajputana into 
the adjacent province of Gujerat. Dr. Shool- 
brel, a man of light and leading, was their 
pioneer. Their work centres about Jeypore, 
Ajmere, Deoli, and Beawar. In the same year 
American United Presbyterians entered the 
Punjab, Sialkot being the first station. The 
work now comprises eight districts, and is car- 
ried on with great effectiveness by a force of 
twelve ordained and twelve women mission- 
aries. The theological seminary and memorial 
hospital at Sialkot are effective features. 

In 1856 William Butler, the great pioneer of 
American Methodists in India, arrived in Cal- 
cutta, and proceeded to Rohilkhand, between 
the upper Ganges and the Himalayas. Hardly, 
however, had he become settled in his station of 
Bareilly when the Sepoy Mutiny broke out, 
and on the 31st of May, 1857, the English resi- 
dents were all put to death or put to flight by 
the Sepoys. Dr. Butler and his family escaped, 
to Naina Tal, another mountain town of the 
Himalayas, and for a long time disappeared 
from view. The little group were known for 
months as "the Kama Tal Refugees/' 

In 1858 the American Dutch Reformed 
Church, whose earliest representative had been 
John Scudder, sent out by the American Board, 
came into the field with vigor and zeal. Arcot 
is the region of their large activity. 


(2) Early Heroes. 

Out of the noble army of pioneer mission- 
aries, during the period from Carey to the Mu- 
tiny (1793-1857), we can single out but a few 
of the mo n ; t illustrious names besides those 
already mentioned. Alexander Duff, who in 
1880 arrived in Calcutta as the first mission- 
ary of the Established Church of Scotland, 
and became the founder of English education 
in India, is estimated by Bishop Thoburn as 
the most prominent man in the missionary 
world after William Carey. 

Other great names are those of Charles Rhe- 
nius (1814), "one of the ablest, most clear- 
sighted, practical, and zealous missionaries 
whom India has ever seen " ; Daniel Poor, who 
in 1816 began his fruitful labors in the island 
of Ceylon ; Eugenio Kincaid, the fearless mis- 
sionary, explorer, and envoy ; the Bombay 
missionaries, Donald Mitchell (1825), Dr. J. 
Murray Mitchell, Robert Nesbit, and John Wil- 
soil (1835), of the Free Church of Scotland ; 
Robert T. Noble (1814), of the English 
Church Missionary Society, who founded at 
Masulipatam the college which has been called 
" the Cambridge of South India " ; Stephen 
Hislop, founder of Hislop Missionary College 
at Nagpur ; and that other mighty Scotch- 
man, John Anderson, the apostolic successor, 
after the spirit, of Alexander Duff, who carried 
his methods to Madras, and who died "such 


a death, as I have never before witnessed,'* 
said one of Ms physicians. " His constitution 
should have borne another twenty years of 
labor, but he was broken with the weight of 
heavy responsibilities and exhausting toil with- 
out respite, while practising the most rigid self- 
denial that in every way the work might be 
advanced." Truly this might be adopted as 
the typical missionary epitaph. 

Time would fail to tell of many more, apos- 
tles and martyrs, who through faith wrought 
righteousness, obtained promises, and subdued 



" The history of Christian India," says Smith, 
" began in the year 1858," the Annus Mira- 
bilis of modern missions. The Sepoy Mutiny, 
in 1857, opened a new period. The timid, un- 
tried, native Christians were identified by the 
mutineers with the governing class and put to 
the test of martyrdom for their Master's sake. 

Martyrs of the Mutiny 

Thirty-seven missionaries and their families 
were butchered, and an unknown number of 
native Christians. " The Mohammedans al- 
ways, and the Hindus occasionally, offered such 
their lives as the price of denying their Lord. 
Not one instance can be cited of failure to con- 


f ess Mm by men and women, very often of frail 
physique, and but yesterday of the same faith 
as their murderers." Happily the records of 
the infant church of India contain a narrative 
of one survivor of the torture of that time, 
Gopinath Nundy, a Brahman converted Binder 
Alexander Duff. This heroic recital is given 
us in Smith's " Conversion of India." 

Among the martyrs were the Presbyterian 
missionaries stationed at Parukhabad, Freeman, 
Johnson, McMullen, Campbell, and their wives 
and the two little children of the Campbells. 
They were captured as they tried to escape 
down the Ganges to Cawnpore, and at Nana 
Sahib's orders were all taken to the parade- 
ground and shot in cold blood. How calmly 
they met the end these words of Mrs. Free- 
man's, written just before her death, show: 

" We are in God's hands and we know that 
He reigns. We have no place to flee for shel- 
ter but under the covert of His wings, and 
there we are safe. . . . Should I be called to 
lay down my life, most joyfully would I die for 
Him who laid down His life for me." 

New consecration, vigor, and purpose were 
infused into every missionary society laboring 
in India, as they saw of what stuff their con- 
verts were made ; while Queen Victoria's Proc- 
lamation, in which the crown assumed direct 
responsibility of the empire, doing away with 
the shifting and mercenary " John Company," 


and assuring all her subjects equal and impar- 
tial protection, stimulated new organizations to 
enter new fields. 

Origin of the Week of Prayer 

Close following the agitation of the Mutiny 
came a call from the Presbyterian Mission at 
Ludhiana to the whole Christian Church to 
unite in an annual Week of Prayer, to begin 
with January 8, 1859 ; " that all God's people 
of every name and nation, of every continent 
and island be ... invited to unite with us in 
the petition that God would now pour out His 
Spirit upon all flesh, so that all the ends of the 
earth might see His salvation." 

Such was the origin, such the missionary 
motive, too often forgotten, of the Week of 
Prayer. It was John H. Morrison who first 
conceived the thought and put it in action. 

Methodist Progress 

Most stimulating is the broad onward sweep 
of the Methodists in India, with their great 
names of Butler, Parker, Taylor, Thoburn, and 
many more. 

Emerging from their hiding, the Naina Tal 
refugees, upon whom the intense interest of all 
their brethren In America was concentrated, 
proceeded to establish themselves in Mordara- 
bad and Lucknow. In 1864 the bounds of their 
work were extended so as to take in southern 


and eastern Oudh and other adjacent regions, 
their field being included in a triangle bounded 
on the west by the Ganges, on the southeast by 
a line drawn from the city of Allahabad east- 
ward to the Himalayas and by the great Snow 
Mountains on the north and northeast. The 
year 1870 marked another crisis, when Bishop 
Thobum carried the work westward across the 
Ganges. Bishop Taylor's masterly evangelistic 
genius, and the revival under him in South 
India, made new centres in Bombay, in Poona, 
in Secunderabad, in Madras, and in Calcutta. 
The work was then pushed eastward as far as 
Rangoon, Methodists thus coming to share with 
Baptists and Anglicans the work of evangeliz- 
ing Burma ; points of vantage were seized in 
the Punjab and in the Central Provinces, in 
fine, instead of the compact triangle at first 
occupied, the Methodist body now surveys all 
Inglia as its field. In 1892, in the North India 
Conference more than nineteen thousand were 
baptized. " To-day," said Dr. Gracey recently 
to the writer, " a hundred thousand natives are 
ready to cast away their idols and profess 
Christ. If we had but teachers in whose hands 
to place them for Christian training, we could 
baptize that number at once." u We entered 
Calcutta in 1872," says Bishop Thoburn, " with- 
out a dollar in the shape of financial resources. 
We had not a member in all that great city 
to receive us. Bishop Taylor preached for 

164 -LUX CHIttSTI 

months in a suburban chapel kindly placed at 
his disposal by a Baptist missionary, but his 
labors for the most part were confined to pri- 
vate houses. "We held on, and now we hare the 
largest place of worship, not only in Calcutta, 
but in India, and the largest congregation." 

Q-erman and English Success 

Another stirring chapter of history is furnished 
us by the extraordinary success of the German 
Mission among the Kols, the aboriginal people 
of Chota Nagpore. At the end of 1861 there 
were 2400 converts. Ten years later there were 
20,727, and at the present time there are 30,000. 

Founded early in the century by the gifted, 
but erratic and mysterious KIngletaube, the 
great Tamil missions in Travancore, under the 
London Missionary Society, have made phe- 
nomenal progress. In the decade 1861-1871 
they added 10,000 to the number of converts, 
and more than 8000 between 1871-1881, bidding 
fair to evangelize the entire region. Strong 
missions are also sustained by this Society in 
North and South India. 

Work of the Anglican Church 

While the Protestant Episcopal Church of 
America has not thus far made itself markedly 
felt in India, the Church of England is the state 
church, sustained at a cost of about eight hun- 
dred thousand dollars annually. The prestige of 


the establishment is naturally thus transmitted, 
and the Anglican clergy are found in all impor- 
tant towns, and occupy many positions of influ- 
ence. The C. M. S. (Church Missionary Society) 
and S. P. G. (Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel), the one representing low and the other 
high church sympathies, have undoubtedly done 
the most efficient work of any branch of the 
Christian church in India. The province of 
Tinnevelly, at the southern extremity of the 
peninsula, stands foremost as the most Chris- 
tianized province of India. About 1822 Bishop 
Heber wrote: "The strength of the Christian 
cause in India is in these missions, Tinnevelly 
and Tan j ore; it will be a grievous and heavy sin 
if England and the agents of her bounty do not 
nourish and protect the churches here founded." 
This mission, originally known as the Palam- 
cotta Mission, dates back to the time of the 
Danish Lutheran missionaries of Tranquebar, 
and was visited by the celebrated Schwartz in 
1778. After coming under German Lutheran 
oversight, notably that of Rhenius, in 1820, it 
was finally adopted by the English societies 
above named. Under their control a period of 
wonderful expansion has ensued, particularly 
within the last quarter century. The first mis- 
sionary bishops or coadjutors of the Bishop of 
Madras were chosen from the Tinnevelly mis- 
sions, which, in 1890, numbered sixty thousand 
Christians. Rhenius, who has been called bolder 

166 l*UX CHEI8TI 

and more talented even than Schwartz himself, 
originated the policy of forming his native Chris- 
tians into separate villages. This method is 
successfully followed to-day in the work of the 
American United Presbyterians in the Punjab. 

Canadian and Other Societies 
Canadian Baptists began work in the Kistna 
district at Coconada in 1874, and have since 
planted several stations in the Vizagapatam 
district on the northern Madras coast. The 
Presbyterian Church of Canada founded a 
Foreign Missionary Society in 1875, and has 
stations at Gwalior, Indore, Ratlam, and other 
points in central and north India* 

In central India, at Hoshangabad, English 
Friends began their work in 1874. Earnest 
and thorough teaching is imparted, and five 
centres are held by an efficient working force. 
Orphanages for both boys and girls, with nearly 
a thousand inmates, form an interesting feature 
of this work. American Friends have very 
recently undertaken a mission at ISTowgong, 

Educational Work 

From the period of Carey and Duff no feature 
has been more emphasized in Indian, missions 
than the education of natives as the basis for 
evangelization. "Previous to the arrival of 
Alexander Duff in Calcutta, in 1830, Christian 
education had been mainly carried on in the 


vernacular. Dr. Duff with, all his vigor entered 
energetically into extensive educational reforms. 
Taking advantage of the desire on the part of 
the natives for a knowledge of English, and 
convinced that the Hindu mind, if well educated 
in science, history, and philosophy, must refuse 
to believe the principles of Hinduism, he estab- 
lished the Mission College at Calcutta on a broad 
educational basis." 

All who visit India, whether Christian or 
agnostic, agree that the best antidote for the 
superstition and degradation of the people is 
the spread of knowledge. But the non-Chris- 
tian education furnished by government schools 
has failed to produce any moral improve- 
ment. Conscious of this, the government has 
of late encouraged the religious societies at 
work in the country to establish schools of their 
own. An imposing array of divinity schools, 
colleges, seminaries, high schools, English, ver- 
nacular, boarding, and day schools, kindergarten 
and primary, deaf-mute, blind, manual training, 
etc., all on a Christian basis, now stand as a 
powerful factor in civilizing and Christianizing 
"Young India." Closely allied with this 
department is the work of translation and its 
right hand, the printing-press. The indis- 
pensable character of this part of the work is 
self-evident, and is attested by the prominence 
given to its press work by each society engaged 
in Indian missions* 


Medical Work 

No greater blessing lias been conferred by 
the American churches on British India than 
that of modern medical missions, first tentatively 
and successfully practised by Dr. John Scudder 
(1819), of the Dutch Reformed Church, and 
now adopted by all the societies as a prominent 
feature of their work. 

The early labors of John Thomas, colleague 
of Carey, had not been taken up by the English, 
and this branch of labor had been arrested for a 
time. The first regular medical mission of India 
was established by Dr. H. M. Scudder, son of 
John Scudder, in 1850, in North Arcot. Most 
interesting is the story of Dr. Colin Valentine, 
who, " by means of his medical skill exercised 
in the successful treatment of the Ranee of 
Jeypore, wife of the Maharajah, gained access, 
both for himself and his brother missionaries, 
to one of the most bigoted and exclusive strong- 
holds of idolatry in northern India, where the 
United Presbyterian Church has now a pros- 
perous mission." 

Native medical practice has been notoriously 
inadequate and pernicious, and perhaps no 
country affords a sadder spectacle of diseased 
and mutilated humanity than does India. Dr. 
Duff first induced his Bengali students to take 
full medical qualifications in Great Britain. 
Indian universities now give requisite medical 


.training, and a new order of intelligent practice 
in hospitals and dispensaries has been ushered 
in. Only the larger cities, however, are in any 
way as yet adequately supplied. No more ad- 
mirable work has been undertaken than that 
among lepers, first initiated by John Newton in 
Ludhiana, Punjab (Presbyterian). Mr. W. C. 
Bailey, who had participated in this work, was 
instrumental in founding a society in London. 
The Gossner (German) Mission at Punelia 
conducts the largest work for lepers in India. 
Many other asylums have been established where 
the sufferers are tenderly cared for and led to 
the great physician. A most important phase 
is the separation of yet untainted children from 
leprous parents and the care of them in separate 


Temperance Work 

This branch of reform is not exclusively a 
phase of Christian missions, as the Anglo-Indian 
Temperance Association stands at the head of 
the work and is supported by many distin- 
guished Hindus. Mission work has, however, 
greatly impressed and extended temperance 
sentiment. In many missions, notably those 
of American Baptists in Assam and Burma, 
all converts promise total abstinence before 
baptism is administered. Native Hindus as 
well as Mohammedans are, as a rule, abstemi- 
ous, and it is cause for profound regret that, 
in the twenty years from 1874 to 1894, under 


the excise laws of the British government, the 
revenue for sales of liquor nearly doubled. 

The Student Volunteer Movement 

All the world has felt the thrill of the fresh 
enthusiasm infused into the world's missions by 
the Student Volunteer Movement. Although 
the most recent of general missionary organi- 
zations, its roots reach back to the immortal 
" Haystack" meeting at Williams College in 
1806, the birthplace of American Foreign Mis- 
sions. A handful of students, met for an out- 
door service, took refuge from a thunderstorm 
beneath a haystack, and then and there re- 
solved to " send the gospel to the heathen" and 
took for their simple, manly motto, " We can do 
it if we will." A college society was formed ; 
others resulted ; some of the original movers 
died early and are almost forgotten. Hall and 
Newell, who became missionaries to India, 
united in writing a pamphlet entitled, "The 
Conversion of the World ; a Plea for Six Hun- 
dred Millions." Dr. John Scudder saw a copy 
in a sick-room, read it, and offered himself as 
the first medical missionary to India. A boy 
named James B. Taylor caught the spark of 
Scudder's deep devotion, prepared himself to 
become a missionary, and while in Princeton 
College, aided by Peter G-ulick, founded the 
Philadelphian Society, which remains to this 
day the centre of activity there. In 1877, at an 


intercollegiate Christian conference, the mis- 
sionary propaganda was engrafted upon the 
general movement for the promotion of the 
Christian life in colleges, and the Student Vol- 
unteer Movement was born. Inspiration was 
caught from the spirit of heroic consecration of 
the mission band of Cambridge University, Eng- 
land. At Northfield, in the summer of 1886, 
a hundred men volunteered for foreign service 
within a single month." Over five thousand are 
now 011 the various fields or under pledge to go. 
From the first the Student Volunteers have 
evinced the strongest sympathy with medical 
work. In 1898 Douglass Thornton, a delegate 
to the Cleveland conference from England, 
stated that the majority of the Student Volunteer 
body in ^England were studying medicine. 

New life blood has filled the veins of all 
Christendom from the glorious uprising of 
Student Volunteers, which was termed by Mr. 
Moody the greatest religious movement of the 
century. Its effect on India is powerful. In 
1897, during the conferences held in that 
country, one hundred and twenty-seven student 
delegates pledged themselves to devote their 
whole lives to Christian work in India. 

Modern Protestant missions in India were 
reborn with the new India which followed the 

Mutiny. In the year 1851 there were 15,000 
communicants of Protestant churches in all 


India. In 1891 there were 215,769. The cen- 
sus returns for 1901, only as yet partially pub- 
lished, have been secured from India for this 
volume and will be found in a table in the 
Appendix. They furnish reasonable ground 
for high hope and fresh resolution. 

G-eograpliy of the Qenturtfs WorJc 

In the earlier part of the century the work 
begun in the four commercial centres Cal- 
cutta, Bombay, Madras, and Rangoon and in 
Colombo centred in the three great presidencies, 
in lower Burma, and in the island of Ceylon. 
Later, Assam, Oudh, N. W. Provinces, and the 
Punjab were penetrated, and work was pushed 
north and east into Kashmir and Sindh, which re- 
main, however, but meagrely cultivated. Mean- 
' while Mysore had been entered, and, in extreme 
South India, Travancore, Tinnevelly, Madura, 
etc., had become the most highly cultivated of 
all Indian mission fields, certain missions being 
reported as "fully occupied." In Ceylon one- 
tenth of the population is now Christian. It is 
conceded that North India is a more difficult 
field than South, owing, perhaps, to the greater 
hold of Mohammedanism in the former. In 
general the feudatory states have been scarcely 
touched. The Nizam's dominions (Haidarabad) 
are the chief stronghold of Islam in the Deccan, 
and they are notoriously inaccessible to mission- 
aries. There remain yet enormous populations 


hardly reached in Central Provinces, in Rajpu- 
tana (where there are but two missionaries to 
every million inhabitants), in Behar (one mis- 
sionary to every four millions), and in Bhopal, 
with its two millions, but just opened. Among 
native races, the Karens of Burma bid fair soon 
to merit the term " Christianized." But as we 
study the map we are forced to see that Chris- 
tianity has as yet only laid hold of the fringes 
of the mighty peninsula. 



The Son of God goes forth to war, 

A kingly crown to gain ; 
His blood-red banner streams afar : 

Who follows in His train? 
Who best can drink his cup of woe, 

Triumphant over pain, 
Who patient bears his cross below, 

He follows in His train. 

That martyr first, whose eagle eye 

Could pierce beyond the grave ; 
Who saw his Master in the sky, 

And called on Him to save ; 
Like Him, with pardon on His tongue, 

In midst of mortal pain, 
He prayed for them that did the wrong : 

Who follows in his train ? 

A noble band, the chosen few, 

On whom the Spirit came, 
Twelve valiant saints, their hope they knew. 

And mocked the torch of flame ; 
They met the tyrant's brandished steel, 

The lion's gory mane, 
They bowed their necks the stroke to feel : 

Who follows in their train ? 

A noble army, men and boys, 

The matron and the maid, 
Around the throne of God rejoice, 

In robes of light arrayed. 
They climbed the steep ascent of heaven, 

Through peril, toil, and pain ; 
O God, to us may grace be given 

To follow in their train. 
B. HJEBEK, Bishop of Calcutta 1822-1820. 



Christian. England laughed when Sydney Smith 
sneered at William Carey as a "consecrated cobbler," 
going on a fool's errand to convert the heathen. Carey 
died, aged seventy-three years. He was visited on his 
death-bed by the Bishop of India, the head of the Church 
of England in that land, who bowed his head and in- 
voked the blessing of the dying missionary. The British 
authorities had denied to Carey a landing-place on his 
first arrival in Bengal; but when he died, the govern- 
ment dropped all its flags to half -mast in honor of a man 
who had done more for India than any of their generals. 
The universities of England, Germany, and America 
paid tribute to his learning, and to-day Protestant Chris- 
tianity honors him as one of its noblest pioneers. 


O thou, my soul, forget no more 

The Friend who all thy sorrows bore. 

Let every idol be forgot ; 
But, O my soul, forget Him not. 

Renounce thy works and ways, with grief, 

And fly to this divine relief ; 
JSTor Him forget, who left His throne, 

And for thy life gave up His own. 

Eternal truth and mercy shine 

In Him, and He Himself is thine : 
And canst thou, then, with sin beset, 

Such charms, such matchless charms, forget ? 

O no : till life itself depart, 

His name shall cheer and warm my heart ; 
And, lisping this, from earth I'll rise, 

And join the chorus of the skies. 
KKISHNA PAL (first Hindu baptized by 

Dr. Carey, 1800), translated by Marshnaan. 

176 LUX CHttlSTI 


The anti-missionaries call them fools, madmen, tinkers, 
Calvinists, and schismatics, and keep out of sight their 
love of men and their zeal for God, and their self-devot- 
edness, their indefatigable industry, their unequalled 
learning. These "low-born and low-bred mechanics" 
have translated the whole Bible into Bengali, and have by 
this time printed ib. They are printing the New Testa- 
ment in the Sanskrit, Orissa, Mahratta, the Hindustanee, 
the Guzerattee, and translated into Persic, Telinga, Car- 
nata, Chinese, the language of the Sikhs and the Bur- 
mese. Extraordinary as this is, it will appear still more 
so when it is remembered that of these men one was orig- 
inally a shoemaker, another a printer at Hull, and the 
third the master of a charity school at Bristol. Only 
fourteen years have elapsed since Thomas and Carey set 
foot in India, and in that time these missionaries have 
acquired this gift of tongues. In fourteen years these 
" low-born, low-bred mechanics " have done more to spread 
the knowledge of the Scriptures among the heathen than 
has been accomplished or even attempted by all the 
world beside. 

- ROBERT SOUTIIEY, in Quarterly Review, 1807. 

Epitaph of Christian Frederic Schwartz (1798) on his 
tomb at Tanjore, written by the Rajah Serfojee, to whom 
he had acted as guardian : 

Firm wast thou, humble and wise, 
Honest, pure, free from disguise, 
Father of orphans, the widow's support, 
Comfort in sorrow of every sort. 
To the benighted, dispenser of light, 
Doing, and pointing to that which is right. 
Blessing to princes, to people, to me ; 
May I, my father, be worthy of thee 1 
Wisheth and prayeth thy Sarabojee, 


My brethren, it were madness to shut our eyes to the 
fact that Christianity has come to India. It is not a pass- 
ing episode; it is a mighty conquering and permanent 
spiritual power, come to stay and repeat its victories. 

Brahman Latoyer. 


It is absolutely necessary : 

1. That we set an infinite value upon immortal souls. 

2. That we gain all information of the snares and 
delusions in which these heathen are held. 

3. That we abstain from all those things which would 
increase their prejudices against the gospel. 

4. That we watch all opportunities for doing good. 

5. That we keep to the example of Paul, and make 
the great subject of our teaching Christ the Crucified. 

6. That the natives should have entire confidence in 
us, and feel quite at home in our company. 

7. That we should build xip and watch over the souls 
that may be gathered. 

8. That we form, our native brethren to usefulness, 
fostering every kind of genius, and cherishing every gift 
and grace in them, especially advising the native churches 
to choose their own pastors and deacons from amongst 
their own countrymen. 

9. That we labor with all our might in forwarding 
translations of the Sacred Scriptures in the languages of 

10. That we establish native free schools, and recom- 
mend these establishments to other Europeans. 

11. That we be constant in prayer and the cultivation 
of personal religion, to fit us for the discharge of these 
laborious and unutterably important labors. Let us often 
look at Brainerd in the woods of America pouring out his 
very soul before God for the perishing heathen, without 
whose salvation nothing could make him, happy. 


12, That we giye ourselves unreservedly to this glori- 
ous cause. Let us never think that our time, our gifts, 
our strength, our families, or even the clothes we wear, 
are our own. Let us sanctify them all to God and His 
cause. that He may sanctify us for His workl No 
private family ever enjoyed a greater portion of happiness 
than we have done since we resolved to have all things in 
common. If we are enabled to persevere, we may hope 
that multitudes of converted souls will have reason to 
bless God through all eternity for sending His gospel into 
this country. 


It may be well to consider for a moment the task 
which Judson had set before him. What did they pro- 
pose to do, this man of twenty-five and his young wife, 
standing amid the level rice-fields on the coast of lower 
Burma, with their faces turned landward toward towns 
and cities swarming with idolaters and hilltops crowded 
with heathen temples and pagodas? Their purpose was 
to undermine an ancient religion deeply fixed in the 
hearts and habits of four hundred millions of human 

In the Baptist meeting-house at Maiden, Mass., is a 
marble tablet bearing the following inscription: 



BORN AWUST 9, 1788. 

DIED APBIL 12, 1850. 








Hindus ! awake, or yon are lost. How many thousands 
have these missionaries turned to Christianity ! On how 
many more have they cast their nets ! If we sleep as 
heretofore, in a short time they will turn us all to Chris- 
tianity, and our temples will be changed into churches. 
Is there no learned Pundit to be secured for money who 
will crush the Christians? . . . How long will water 
remain in a reservoir which continually lets out but re- 
ceives none in? Let all the people join as one man to 
banish Christianity from the land. Recent Hindu 
(Tamil) Tract. 


Alexander, Caesar, Charlemagne, and myself founded 
great empires; but upon what did the creations of our 
genius depend? Upon force. Jesus alone founded his 
empire upon love, and to this very day millions would 
die for Him. Words of Napoleon Bonaparte. 


No higher evidence of human sincerity need be 
looked for than when a lordly Brahman consents to bend 
in penitential humility at the feet of a man as destitute 
of caste as is Chinaman Lai, the native preacher, and en- 
treats him to pour from his hand upon that proud head 
the water which forever breaks this Brahman's caste. 
When, in addition, this " aristocrat by creation " volun- 
tarily and promptly takes off from his breast the emblem 
and outward sign of his nobility (the sacred thread), and 
hands it over with his string of praying beads to the 
administrator of the holy rite, he has done all that man 
can do in India to prove his earnestness and honesty. 


On this occasion (at Ajudhiya, March, 1885) there "were 
one hundred and twenty-seven of these Brahmans who did 
all this, and that, too, in public and before thousands of 
their own people, who had hitherto honored, them as the 
clergy caste and nobility. B. II. BADLEY. 


During the few months since I came home from 
India I have often had occasion to talk with men. in 
high, powerful, and influential positions, and not seldom 
have I been asked with honest earnestness and great 
solicitude what ought, in my judgment, to be done for 
India. To this I have always answered, without reserve 
or hesitation, that, according to my view, we should stand 
out in India as a Christian government. 


Make Mm a Christian and make him a missionary. 
Daily Prayer of Dr. JoJm Scudder for his Son. 

No love in this dark world has ever seemed to me so 
much like the Saviour's as that of Dr. Newton for his 
lepers. By ONE WHO KNEW HIM. 

I feel my heart more and more engaged in the great 
work, and so much set upon it that I would rather un- 
dergo all the perils of a journey from Holland overland to 
Hindustan, should it be impracticable to obtain a passage 
by sea, than not go upon the glad errand. 


** Was not Dr. Carey once a shoemaker ? " said a young 
British officer who had just met him at a social gathering 
in India. " No, sir," said Dr. Carey, quietly turning on 
the questioner, " only a cobbler.** 


Personally, I owe all that I have attained to the 
American missionaries, and 110 one can tell the incal- 
culable good they haye done to my people. 


Having studied the Vedas, the Koran, and the Tripi- 
takas of the Buddhists, I have nowhere found a prayer 
so brief and all-comprehensive as that which the Chris- 
tians call the Lord's Prayer. 


"No foreigner has ever entered the Punjab who has 
done so much for the Punjab as Padre Forman Sahib." 
From a Lahore anti- Christian Newspaper, 1894. 

Would to God, my honored brethren, the time were 
arrived when not only in heart and hope, but visibly, we 
shall be one fold as well as under one shepherd. After all, 
why do we differ ? Surely, the leading points which keep 
us asunder are capable of explanation or of softening. 
Letter of J3is7iop Heher to the Serampore Triad, 

June 3, 1824. 

It is a part of a missionary's trials rightly to bear the 
impatience and contradictions, insolence and reproaches, 
of men who are sunk to the lowest degradation both 
mental and moral. GORDON HALL, 1812-1826. 

When asked in America what were the discourage- 
ments in the missionary work, Dr. John Scudder answered, 
"I do not know the word. I long ago erased it from my 



I. Christian Martyrs of India. 
II. Schwartz, the Christian. 

III. The Serampore Triad. 

IV. William Wilberforce, Statesman and Philan- 


V. The Decade 1810-1820 in the History of Indian 
Missions. Great Men at Work. Great Organi- 
zations formed, 
VI. Alexander Duff, the Founder of English Education 

in India. 
VII. What did the Mutiny mean to the Missionary 

Enterprise ? 

VIIL England and the Opium Traffic and Excise Laws. 
IX. Notable Native Christians (Men). 
X. The Haystack Missionary Meeting and its Latest 
Outgrowth, the Student Volunteer Movement, 
both in England and America. 
XI. To what Extent is Denominational Cooperation 

practicable in Indian Missions ? 

XII. Mass Movements in the Evangelization of India. 
(Karens, Kols, Telugus, Garos, South Indians.) 


Report of Ecumenical Conference, 1900. 

Reports of Student Volunteer Conferences, 1898, 1902. 

Missionary Periodical Publications and Denominational 
Handbooks (especially for IX). 

Clair-Tisdall's "India." 

Biographies of Carey, Duff, Martyn, Wilson, by George 
Smith ; of Heber, by Montefiore ; of Judson, by Ed- 
ward Judson ; of Carey, Duff, Judson, and Martyn, 
in the Missionary Annals Series. 

Graham's "Missionary Expansion since the Reformation." 


For particular reference on themes given above : 

Butler's " Land of the Veda," VII. 

Car us- Wilson's " Life of Irene Petrie," X. 

Clarke's " Study of Christian Missions/' XI. 

Mrs. Clough's " While sewing Sandals/' IX, XII. 

Dennis's " Christian Missions and Social Progress," 


Dennis's " Foreign Missions after a Century," VIII, XI. 
Downie's ** History of the Telugu Mission," IX, XII. 
Hodgkins's Via Christi/' I, II, III. 
Holcomb's " Men of Might in India Missions/* II, III, V, 

VI, X. 

Lawrence's " Modern Missions in the East," VII, XII. 
Leonard's "Missionary Annals of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury," V, VII, X, XII. 
Marshman's " Carey, Marshman, and Ward " (out of 

print), III, IV. 

Mott's " Strategic Points in the World's Conquest," X. 
Satthianadhan's " Sketches of India Christians," IX. 
Sherriiig's " History of Protestant Mission in India," II, 

Smith's " Conversion of India." For all but IV, VIII, 


Thoburn's "India and Malaysia/' II, III, V, VI, IX, XII. 
Thoburn's " Missionary Apprenticeship," VII. 
Warneck's " Outline of History of Protestant Missions," 



1800-1807 Hannah Marshman establishes girls' schools. 

1802 . s . Female infanticide forbidden by law. 

1816 . . . Ann H. Judson teaches women and children 
of Burma. 

1822 . . . Miss Cooke, C. M. S., opens schools for 
secluded women. 

1825 . . . Wives of Bombay missionaries open schools. 

1829 . . . Suttee abolished. 

1834 . . . First English women's missionary society. 
F. E. S. (Church of England.) 

1837 . . . Ladies' societies of Church of Scotland for 
female education in India. 

1851 . . . First ladies' medical missionary society, 
Philadelphia, founded by Sarah J. Hale. 

1856 . . . Remarriage Act passed. 

1861 . . . Woman's Union Missionary Society founded 
by Mrs. Doremus. 

1868-1878 Formation of women's societies in leading de- 
nominations of United States and Canada. 

1869 . . . Dr. Clara Swain, first lady missionary physi- 
cian, goes to Bareilly. 

1876 . . . Indian universities open to women. 

1880 ... Dr. Fanny Butler, first English lady physi- 
cian, goes to Kashmir. 

1884 . . . Miss Chandra Mukhi Bose takes degree of 
M.A. at University of Calcutta. 

1886 . . . Dr. Joshee takes medical degree. 

1886 . . . Lady Dufferin Association. 

1886 . . . Ramabai's first visit to America. 

1886 ... W. C. T. U. introduced into India. 

1891 . . . Age of consent raised by law to twelve years. 

1893 . . . Miss Cornelia Sorabji admitted to the bar 

at Bombay. 

1894 . . . North India School of Medicine for Christian 




For Mercy has a human heart ; 
Pity, a human face ; 
And Love, the human form divine ; 
And Peace, the human dress. 


THE hall-mark of modem Hinduism is the 
degradation of women. Woman is the " gate 
to hell," " a whirlpool of suspicion," " a dwell- 
ing-place of vices," " a poison that appears like 
nectar." Only to a mother of sons, and above 
all to a mother-in-law, is respect or consider- 
ation accorded. 


The chief of the social wrongs of woman are, 
in brief, her marriage in infancy to a man 
arbitrarily chosen for her, her possible child- 
widowhood, her entering into married life at 
ten or twelve years, the physical injuries of 
premature motherhood combined with neglect 
of all proper treatment, her absolute ignorance, 
her enforced and unnatural seclusion. To these 
must be added the nameless evils of polygamy 


and concubinage, the possible doom of infan- 
ticide not yet wholly done away with, and the 
low moral tone of family life. 

Without further recapitulation we will quote 
Mr. Kipling's verdict, and proceed to consider 
what has thus far been accomplished by various 
agencies toward the uplifting of the status of 
Indian women and the mitigation of their suf- 

Verdict of a Close Observer 

" The matter with this country," says Mr. 
Kipling, than whom no man knows his India 
better, " is not in the least political, but an 
all-round entanglement of physical, social, and 
moral evils and corruption, all more or less 
due to the unnatural treatment of women. 
You cannot gather figs from thistles, and so 
long as the system of infant marriage, the pro- 
hibition of the remarriage of widows, the life- 
long imprisonment of wives in a worse than 
penal confinement, and the withholding from 
them of any kind of education as rational 
beings continues, the country cannot advance 
a step. Half of it is morally dead, and worse 
than dead, and that is just the half from which 
we have a right to look for the best impulses. 
The foundations of life are rotten, utterly rot- 
ten, and beastly rotten. The men talk of their 
rights and privileges. I have seen the women 
that bear these men. May God forgive the 
men ! " 


jFemale Infanticide 

In 1794, within the year after his arrival iii 
India, Carey discovered the practice of sacri- 
ficial infanticide at the annual festivals at 
Ganga Sagar and on the Ganges. Through 
his friend, Mr. Udny, the atrocious crime was 
laid before Lord Wellesley, then governor- 
general, and a statesman of humane and en- 
lightened views. Mr. Carey's position as Pro- 
fessor of Bengali in Fort William College at 
Calcutta, surrounded by learned pundits from 
all parts of the empire, gave him peculiar ad- 
vantages in investigating the subject, and he 
was appointed by government to report upon it. 
His labors were successful. A law was speed- 
ily passed prohibiting this form of human sac- 
rifice under severe penalty. From that time 
open infanticide has ceased; but the death-rate 
among girl babies continues to be singularly 
excessive. The census of 1870 revealed u the 
curious fact " that three hundred female infants 
were stolen "by wolves from within the city of 

Suttee , 

From the period of his settlement in Seram- 
pore Carey had been unremitting in his en- 
deavors to draw the attention of government to 
the practice of suttee,, having been roused to a 
passion of indignation by witnessing the burning 

188 iirx CHEISTI 

of a shrieking, struggling woman held forcibly 
down to the pile. This custom was not enjoined 
by the Code of Manu, and was therefore a later 
enactment of the Brahmans, for what purpose 
or with what motive has never been fully de- 
termined. The motive of the victim, who thus 
immolated herself on the funeral pyre of her 
husband, is not far to seek. She was assured 
of a glorious and immediate entrance into par- 
adise by this voluntary death; if she avoided 
it, she was assured of the wretched ignominy of 
despised widowhood. Carey and his colleagues, 
in 1804, sent ten agents from village to village 
within a circuit of thirty miles of Calcutta, 
to collect information regarding the practice. 
They reported that within those villages more 
than three hundred widows had been burned 
within six months. He further learned from 
the pundits that suttee was "simply encour- 
aged as a virtue " by the Shastras, not com- 

Carey embodied all the results of his inves- 
tigation in a memorial which he presented to 
Lord Wellesley. This was the first official notice 
regarding suttee ever placed on the government 
records. Lord Wellesley, who was inclined per- 
sonally to a prohibitory act, unhappily left his 
seat of office seven days later. A reactionary 
policy, actuated by anti-liberal and anti-mis- 
sionary prejudice, followed ; all hope of prompt 
and vigorous action vanished, and during the 


following twenty-five years seventy thousand 
widows ascended the pile and met their fiery 
death, while Carey " waited and prayed, and 
every day saw the devilish smoke ascend along 
the banks of the Ganges." In 1829, under the 
broad and benevolent rule of Lord Bentinck, 
an act was passed prohibiting suttee under 
stringent penal enactment. 

It was not until 1856 that, after much agita- 
tion, an act was passed legalizing the remarriage 
of widows. In the forty-six years since that 
time only five hundred widows have remarried. 
The intensity of Hindu prejudice against such 
marriages, the despotic tyranny of custom, leads 
to persecution and obloquy which few men and 
women can face. In spite of the ardent efforts 
of Keshub Ohunder Sen and other native re- 
formers, the law thus far remains a dead letter. 

Child Marriage 

In 1871, Mr. Sen, as president of the Indian 
Reform, Association, agitated the subject of 
raising the age for the consummation of mar- 
riage to fourteen years. His efforts were ably 
seconded by the Parsi reformer, Malabari, and 
also by the W. C. T. U. of Bombay. The 
horrible death of Phulmani Dasi, a little girl 
under twelve, in 1890, roused both the Indian 
and British public. Mrs. Monelle Mansell, an 
American medical missionary residing in Luck- 
now, framed a memorial to government signed 


by fifty-five lady physicians in India, citing 
facts coming under their own personal obser- 

"These cases," says the Indian Witness of 
October, 1890, "are too horrible and sickening 
in their awful details to be given to the public. 
They prove to the hilt all the heavy charges 
brought against the system of child-marriage 
on the ground of suffering inflicted. Death, 
crippling for life, agony indescribable, torture 
that would put a fiend to shame these are all 
here. If the officials of the Indian government 
can read this memorial without blenching, their 
hearts are turned to stone." 

The memorial concludes: "In view of the 
above facts, the undersigned lady doctors and 
medical practitioners appeal to your Excellency's 
compassion to enact or introduce a measure by 
which the consummation of marriage will not 
be permitted before the wife has passed the full 
age of fourteen years." 

Another memorial, to the same effect, ad- 
dressed directly to her Majesty, the Queen 
Empress, was sent in, signed by eighteen hun- 
dred native ladies from all over India. Peti- 
tions and protests against such enactment were 
presented in force ; but after thorough sifting, 
on March 19, 1891, a compromise measure was 
carried, and a bill was passed whereby the age 
of consent was raised from ten to twelve* 

Similar reform measures, although in many 


cases the age named is eight years, have been 
introduced into the feudatory states. 


In educational matters the government has 
followed a liberal policy for women. Besides 
the various schools of all grades open to girls, 
the five great Indian universities, at Madras, 
Bombay, Calcutta, Lahore, and Allahabad, are all 
open to women. Beginning in the year 1866, 
Mary Carpenter, an eminent Englishwoman, 
visited India four times with a view to improv- 
ing the condition of the women, and at her 
instance several schools for them were founded 
by the British government. 

For a number of minor government enact- 
ments in favor of women, we refer the student 
to Mrs. Fuller's invaluable book, " The Wrongs 
of Indian Womanhood." 

The formula of the triologue of the British 
government, the oath administered in the Pun- 
jab by Lord Lawrence, partially epitomizes the 
reforms thus far undertaken : 

1. Thou shalt not burn thy widows. 

2. Thou shalt not kill thy daughters. 

3. Thou shalt not bury alive thy lepers. 


Early Laborers 

The first direct effort made in behalf of the 
native women of India by a Christian woman 


was embodied in the day schools at Serampore 
opened by Mrs. Hannah Marshinan in 1800 and 

Among her pupils were Eurasian girls, a class 
met with all over India, the offspring of Euro- 
peans and natives. The Eurasians are a dis- 
tinct element in the population, usually speaking 
English, and more easily accessible than full- 
blooded Hindus, as they are without caste. 
They are sometimes unfairly said to embody the 
vices of both races with the virtues of neither. 
The part of Eurasians in carrying the gospel 
to their sisters in the early days of the last 
century should never be forgotten. In 1819 
a company of young Eurasians, who had been 
instructed by Mrs. Marshman, formed a society 
for the education of Indian women. In three 
years they had six schools and one hundred and 
sixty pupils. 

About this time we read of Mrs. Judson's 
labors among the Burmese women, and of 
similar work by the wives of the Bombay 
missionaries, Mrs. Wilson in 1880 being re- 
ported as carrying on six schools. In 1821 
Miss Cooke of the C. M. S., the first single 
woman to enter India as a missionary, began 
work among the Zenana women. 


With the formation of the English Society 
for the Promoting Female Education in the 


East the F.E.S. in 1884, and the Ladies' 
Societies of the Church of Scotland three years 
later, began the organized work of the Chris- 
tian women of Great Britain for the women 
of India. In the United States, Women's Soci- 
eties for the Promotion of Missionary Endeavor 
had existed even as early as 1800, when we hear 
of the Boston Female Society for promoting 
the Diffusion of Christian Knowledge. Similar 
societies came into existence in all the larger 
denominations in the first half of the century, 
and in 1851 a Ladies' Medical Missionary 
Society was formed in Philadelphia by Mrs. 
S. J. Hale. It was not until 1861, however, 
that American women began to organize for the 
clearly defined purpose of supplementing gen- 
eral missionary work by sending unmarried 
women to work among the girls and women of 
heathen peoples, who could be reached only by 

Mrs. T. C. Doremus of New York was the 
moving spirit in the earliest effort of this kind, 
viz., the Woman's Union Missionary Society, in 
which six different denominations were repre- 
sented. Twenty-five years earlier Mrs. Dore- 
mus had been powerfully affected by the urgent 
appeal of David Abeel, an American missionary 
from China, through whose means the English 
B\ E. S. had been established, and whose influ- 
ence, thus extended to American women, has 
been world wide in its working. 


The loving heart, the generous hand, and 
catholic spirit of Mrs. Doremus well typified 
the earnestness and enthusiasm of this early 
expression of missionary zeal. The first mes- 
sengers direct from the Christian women of 
America to the women of India Miss Mars- 
ton, Miss Higby, and Miss Fevre were sent by 
the new society to Burma. In 1802 Miss Brit- 
tan was sent to Calcutta as a teacher in the 
zenanas, a word which had not until this time 
became familiar to American ears. Her work 
is known in Calcutta as the American Dore- 
mus Zenana Mission. Miss Brittan was later 
.joined by a large force of workers, and the 
efforts of the society have extended to Alla- 
habad, Rajpore, and other centres. The Union 
Society is not an auxiliary, but an independent 
and interdenominational organization. 

jEnglisJi Societies 

In England the formation of women's auxil- 
iaries to the various missionary societies began 
somewhat earlier than in this country. In 1858 
the women of the Wesleyan Methodist body 
formed a society in response to appeals of the 
wives of missionaries in India, and they now 
support about forty missionaries in the Madras 
and Calcutta presidencies and in. Ceylon. In 
1865 a society of ladies was formed in London, 
auxiliary to the S.P.G., which now sustains a 
very strong work in the Punjab. The English 


Baptist Zenana Mission was instituted in 1867, 
and supports twenty missionaries in India at 
stations stretching from Calcutta to Madras. 
In 1880 was formed the Church of England 
Zenana Missionary Society, which is carrying 
on finely organized and vigorous work on 
evangelistic, educational, and medical lines. 

First American Auxiliary 

The first of the series of denominational aux- 
iliaries to be organized in the United States 
was that of the Congregational women in 
Boston and vicinity, in the Old South Chapel 
in January, 1866. This meeting inspires pe- 
culiar interest as marking the rise of the great 
organised Woman's Work for Woman, which 
grew and spread with such effectual power and 
energy during the last quarter of the nine- 
teenth century. 

Mrs. Winslow, of the Madura Mission of the 
American Board, and Mrs. Butler, of the Metho- 
dist Mission in North India, were present. It 
was shown that the condition of women in India 
had always interposed an insuperable obstacle 
to the spread of the gospel ; while many en- 
couraging facts were given to prove that an 
effectual door was open for their evangelization 
by the plan proposed of sending out single 
women to labor for their own sex. Mrs. Butler 
showed clearly that the only means of reaching 
the secluded women then existing was through 


the wives of missionaries, who with, their own 
family cares were wholly unequal to the work. 
Several single women had already offered them- 
selves for the service. The hour was full of 
solemnity; an especial sense of the eiiduement 
of the Holy Spirit, with a new baptism of mis- 
sionary consecration, rested upon the company. 
An organization was effected with the follow- 
ing as the first article of its constitution : 

" The object of this society is to engage the 
earnest, systematic cooperation of the women 
of' New England with the existing boards for 
foreign missions in sending out and supporting 
unmarried female missionaries and teachers to 
heathen women." "It was a day of begin- 
nings. Not one missionary in the field, not an 
auxiliary society to rest upon, only a few women 
full of faith and zeal -only these, and God. 
... In the incipient stage of the enterprise 
the membership knew not whereunto it was 
called; and a few months sufficed, by the great 
enlargement of the work, to show that it would 
be wiser for the ladies of each denomination to 
coopex^ate separately with their own foreign 
missionary board." 

Shortly after, the words limiting the con- 
stituency of the society to New England were 
stricken from the name and constitution, and in 
March, 1869, the Woman's Board of Missions 
was incorporated, auxiliary to the A. B. 0. F. M, 
The first number of the magazine, Life and 


Light for Heathen Women> was issued during 
the same month. 

A Decade of Organization 

The decade 1868-1878 witnessed the forma- 
tion of some kindred organization in almost 
every evangelical body of the United States 
and Canada, springing from this same root. 
In 1868 the Woman's Board of the Interior 
(Congregational) was formed, with its centre in 

In the chapel of the Tremont Street Methodist 
Church, Boston, on the 23d of March, 1869, 
Mrs. Butler, the wife of the founder of the 
India Mission, who had taken a deep interest 
In the formation of the Woman's Board, with 
Mrs. E. W. Parker, just returned from India, 
and six other ladies, organized the Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist 
Church. At a meeting held a few weeks later 
the name of Isabella Thoburn was presented to 
the new society as ready to sail for India under 
their auspices, if appointed. Some timid ones 
shrank from so soon assuming the responsibilitjr 
of a missionary's support, but Mrs. Edward F. 
Porter rose and exclaimed: "Shall we lose her 
because we have not the needed money in our 
hands? No, rather let us walk the streets of 
Boston in calico and save the expense of more 
costly apparel. Mrs. President, I move the 
appointment of Miss Thoburn as our missionary 


to India." The response of the meeting was 
unanimous, "We will send her." Vigorous 
Methodist societies have been formed since the 
first, both in the United States and in Canada, 
the latter not until 1881. 

In 1870 the organization already existing for 
home missionary purposes among the Presby- 
terian women of New York enlarged its field 
of labor and adopted the name, the Ladies' 
Board of Missions of the Presbyterian Church, 
auxiliary to the home and foreign boards, and 
that same year were organized similar societies 
among Presbyterian women of Philadelphia and 
of the Northwest. 

In 1871 the woman's auxiliary of the Foreign 
Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church was formed; and in the same year 
eleven Baptist ladies met in Newton Centre, 
Mass., " for the purpose of forming a woman's 
missionary society for the benefit of women 
in heathen lands." The appeals which led 
directly to this organization were contained 
in letters written in 1869 and 1870 by Mrs. 
Carpenter of Bassein, Burma. The girls' 
school was growing beyond the capacity of 
the busy, burdened missionary's wife, with her 
one helper, to meet. Mrs. Carpenter made a 
fervent appeal for " a woman of character and 
piety to take charge of the female department 
in the school. We are doing all we have 
strength for, but we see the harvest perishing 


for lack of reapers. Pray for us. I am not 
sure that you yourselves have not a work to do for 
missions at home the forming of women 1 s so- 
cieties auxiliary to the Missionary Union. I 
believe that is the true course." The Women's 
Society of the West (Baptist) was formed the 
same year. 

Two years later the women of the Free-will 
Baptist body, who had maintained a society for 
circulating missionary intelligence nd collect- 
ing funds since 1847, decided to take advanced 
ground, and with the approval of their Foreign 
Missionary Board to select and support thence- 
forth their own missionaries. 

The Christian Woman's Board of Missions 
was organized in Cincinnati in October, 1874. 
For some years its work was largely confined 
to Jamaica, bxit in 1882 Miss Greybiel of New 
York with three other young women were sent 
to Ellichpore, India, as Bible teachers and mis- 
sionaries. Though employed by the society, 
these all, at their own request, went out with- 
out stipulated salary, trusting to God and their 
sisters for support. 

The Woman's Board of Foreign Missions of 
the Dutch Reformed Church began its work in 
1875 in New York City, with Mrs. Jonathan 
Sturges as president. This church, "founded 
by the martyrs amid the fires of the Reforma- 
tion in Holland," has carried on the famous 
Arcot Mission in India with characteristic thor- 


oughness and devotion on the part of both men 
and women workers. 

In September and October, 18T6, the Baptist 
women of Canada, East and West, the former 
in Montreal, and the latter in Toronto, effected 
their organization for work in foreign missions. 
The Presbyterian Woman's Society of Canada 
followed the next year. Just over the line of 
the decade, in 1879, occurred the organization of 
the Lutheran Woman's Society. All these soci- 
eties have entered with energetic life into the 
work of their respective boards in India. 

Women's Work in India Demanded 

Such, in brief, is the story of a decade of or- 
ganized work of Christian women for their hea- 
then sisters. It is impossible in this volume to 
describe the fields of labor or to name the noble 
women sent out to represent the societies. The 
ranks are constantly recruited by new organiza- 
tions. The latest, but one of the most promis- 
ing auxiliaries, is that of the Swedish Lutheran 
women, the K. M. A. of Stockholm. They be- 
gan work in 1896 in Central Provinces. The 
work of all is done in perfect harmony with 
that of the affiliated boards, and it has proved 
an invaluable supplement to their enterprise. 
The necessity for this definite effort is so mani- 
fest that explanation and apology are wholly 
superfluous. Take Mr. Kipling's awful arraign- 
ment of the condition of Indian women, and 


place beside It the well-known impossibility of 
men missionaries reaching them, and there is 
but one solution to the problem, viz., the inter- 
position of Christian women. To make such 
interposition most thorough and effective, sepa- 
rate but auxiliary organization is needful. All 
criticism of women's work as leading to diver- 
sion of gifts from the general treasury, and of 
needless multiplying of organizations, falls be- 
fore the incontrovertible facts that the churches 
with the most active women's circles are uni- 
formly the most generous contributors to gen- 
eral boards, and that the increase in knowledge 
of missionary interests is almost wholly de- 
pendent upon the efforts of women's societies. 
Thirty-five years ago there was not a woman's 
foreign missionary society in America ; now 
there are 45 societies, more than 20,000 local 
auxiliaries, and 7000 mission bands. In 1899 
there were 150,000,000 of printed pages sent 
out for use among this force of workers. 

Seventy years ago Alexander Duff, studying 
the seclusion and degradation of women In Cal- 
cutta, said, that "to try to educate women in 
India was as vain as to attempt to scale a wall 
five hundred yards high." Dr. Duff, groat as 
was his wisdom, was not prophet enough to see 
that in the last quarter of the nineteenth cen- 
tury a great army of women of holy heart and 
life would invade India, and prove mighty 
through God, not to scale that wall, but to 


throw it down. It is they, and they alone, 
who can reach the women of India. 


(i) Evangelistic. 

The earliest method of evangelizing higher 
caste women was known as zenana work, mean- 
ing personal visits of missionaries to the secluded 
inmates of Hindu and Mohammedan homes. 
Precisely when this work was initiated, or by 
whom, cannot be determined; but it is certain 
that in 1840 Dr. T. Smith and Mr. and Mrs. 
Fordyce, of the Free Church of Scotland, began 
such a movement, and that such work was ably 
carried on also by Mrs. Mullens and Mrs. Sale. 
To the latter, wife of Rev. John Sale, missionary 
in Calcutta, is often given the credit of first 
entering the Hindu zenana with the message 
of salvation. The Baptist Zenana Missionary 
Society was an outgrowth of her work, followed 
by that of Mrs. Lewis. A slightly different 
method, also known as zenana work, was begun 
as early as 1822, by Miss Cooke of the C. M. S. 
This was largely educational, and the late Dow- 
ager Lady Kinnaircl, through whose influence 
the Church of England Zenana Missionary 
Society (C. E. Z. M. S.) was formed, may be 
regarded as its mainstay. The Indian Female 
Normal School and Instruction Society was or- 
ganized in 1852 for work among zenana women. 


Aside from all educational efforts connected 
with it the work in zenanas has been, since the 
days of Mrs. Sale and Mrs. Mullens, the favorite 
channel of direct evangelization. In this close, 
heart-to-heart encounter the Christian mission- 
ary learns the needs and the sorrows of India's 
oppressed wives and mothers. Here, in the 
very deepest part of it, absolutely closed to men 
missionaries, the family life in all its multiform 
misery can be reached with the healing and 
purifying touch of Christianity. Empty-headed, 
frivolous, lifeless as is the ordinary Hindu or 
Mohammedan woman, she is yet within reach 
of the motives which the missionary thus brings 
to bear upon her, and great have been the results 
in leading such as these to Christ. There are 
now estimated to be fifty thousand zenanas in 
India open to the visits of Christian missionary 
women, but there are forty millions of women in 
zenanas who can be reached by no other agency. 

Closely allied to this line of work is that 
of house-to-house visiting among non-secluded 
low-caste and non-caste women. This work 
devolves largely upon the single women sent 
out by our societies, as does also the work of 
training those most invaluable adjuncts to their 
work, the native Biblewomen, whose knowledge 
of the mental and social habits of their country- 
women enables them to reach their real needs 
as it is hardly possible for English and Ameri- 
can women to do. High faith and courage have 


been shown by these native helpers, who, in the 
testing times of plague and famine, have proved 
themselves made of heroic stuff, In addition 
to their common routine, the Biblewomen often 
visit the great heathen festivals, and engage in 
personal work among the deluded worshippers 
of Jagan-nath and Krishna, with a good measure 
of success. An effective method is that of 
" touring," travelling from village to village in 
a house-boat, or with a tent, everywhere speak- 
ing to the women of Christ's salvation, and 
distributing tracts and Bibles. The instruction 
of the women of the native church in the rudi- 
ments of Christian doctrine is another important 
branch of women's work. 

(2) Educational. 

The evangelistic work of women missionaries, 
since it does not include public preaching, is of 
necessity closely allied to teaching, not only 
exclusively religious teaching in Bible schools, 
but general teaching in boarding and day 
schools, for Hindus and Mohammedans alike, 
where the basis of a secular and religious 
education is laid at the same time. 

This school work is of paramount importance, 
and as the most diligent care is given that the 
secular side does not overshadow the religious, 
the Christian schools are the seed beds of the 
native church. Here are received, from child- 
hood to maturity, the vitalizing germs of 
Christian truth; and forth from these almost 


innumerable schools are going by hundreds the 
Christian young men and women who are the 
hope of India, The effectual principle of 
the Roman Church to secure the training of 
children in their earliest years, thus stamping 
its influence upon them in the most impres- 
sible period, has been wisely adopted by Protes- 
tant missionaries. Great stress is now laid 
upon Christian primary schools and kinder- 
gartens, and with notable results. 

Excellent high schools for girls under mis- 
sionary management are scattered throughout 
the country, some of which may speedily de- 
velop into full-course colleges. Others of 
marked usefulness, as the English Baptist 
school in Delhi, oblige the girls to learn the 
use of grain fans and millstones, or spinning, 
weaving, laundry work, needlework, embroid- 
ery, and many other useful crafts. 

In 1896 there were in the Madras presidency 
over 1000 schools, attended by about 110,000 
girls. Similar figures can be given for other 
parts of India. A transformation is being ac- 
complished which centuries of merely human 
wisdom could not have wrought. The time 
will soon have wholly gone by when a girl 
to be respectable must be married at ten or 

And yet there is even now in India but 
one woman missionary for every 160,000 of 
the native women. 


Women's Colleges 

There are two Christian colleges for women, 
the earliest founded being Lucknow College 
in North India, an institution of the American 
Methodist Mission; and the Sarah Tucker 
College in Palamcotta, South India, under the 
C. M. S, The former receives all pupils sent, 
without regard to race or language, and has 
combined in one happy family, Hindustani, 
Bengali, English, and Eurasian girls, all trained 
to work for Christ. This school is affiliated 
with Allahabad University, and Palamcotta 
College with the Madras University. 

The fact that the government colleges are 
open to women has been mentioned. A large 
majority of the young women who have entered 
these universities are Christians. The first 
candidate was Miss Chandra Mukhi Bose, who 
was prepared in the American Presbyterian 
Mission at Dehra Dun, and passed her entrance 
examination in 1876. She won her degree and 
is dean of the Bethune Girls' College (govern- 
ment) at Calcutta. In this institution all the 
pupils, as it happens, are Hindu, none Moham- 
medan. The Mohammedan youth of both sexes 
are persistently slow in responding to intel- 
lectual appeal. 

Since the universities were opened to women, 
from 1870 to 1899, 1306 women have passed 
the entrance examination. Of these about 


367 are native Christians; 27 Hindus, 1 
Mohammedan, 728 European or Eurasian ; 
the rest are divided between other nation- 

One of the most impressive addresses of the 
Ecumenical Conference of 1900 was that of Miss 
Lilavati Singh, B.A., a young Hindu lady, 
professor of English literature at Luckiiow Col- 
lege. So intense was Miss Singh's eagerness to 
acquire English, that while in school she read 
Green's History of England through seven times. 
After hearing her address on the " Results of 
Higher Education," the late ex-President Har- 
rison remarked, " If I had given a million dol- 
lars to foreign missions, I should count it wisely 
invested if it led only to the conversion of that 
one woman." 

Efforts of Native Christian Women 

The conspicuous educational and philanthropic 
labors of the Parsi family, Mrs. Sorabji and her 
daughters, and of the whole world's heroine, the 
Pundita Eamabai, must be briefly mentioned. 
There is no connection between the two move- 
ments, although all their schools are in Poona, 
and the workers are in warm sympathy with 
each other. 

Twenty-five years ago Mrs. Sorabji, the wife 
of one of tthe first converts to Christianity from 
among the Parsis, founded in that " Stronghold 
of Brahmanism," Poona, a hundred miles south- 


east of Bombay, several vernacular and Anglo- 
vernacular schools for the children of English, 
Parsis, Mohammedans, and Hindus. Mrs. 
Sorabji has also established, with the aid of her 
daughters (one of whom is the first native 
woman of India to take the degree of Doctor of 
Civil Laws), the Victoria High School, which 
has received the most cordial commendation of 
the Duke of Comiaught, the Bishop of Bombay, 
and others in high station. These schools 
furnish not only admirable mental training, 
according to the best European methods, but 
the Bible is diligently taught, and the teaching 
throughout is vitalized by a spirit of devout 
Christian love. 

The reports of these schools are full of 
suggestions of peculiar interest, and cast much 
light on the relative ability and varying charac- 
teristics of Mohammedan, Hindu, and Parsi 

Other efforts of native women for their 
sisters, such as that of Miss Chakarbulty of 
Allahabad, and of the "Daughters of India," if 
less striking than those of the gifted Sorabji 
family, are full of profound interest and 
brightest promise for the future. 

Pundita Ramalai 

Probably no one will dispute the assertion 
that Ramabai is the most distinguished woman 
in India to-day, whether foreign or native. 


Born in 1858, in Gungamal, in the western 
Giiats of India, of Brahman parents, Raniabai 
was carefully educated by her father, a man of 
remarkably advanced views, learning not only 
many dialects, but gaining a thorough knowledge 
of Sanskrit. Her intellectual attainment was 
such that in 1877 the highest title possible for a 
native woman was conferred upon her by the 
pundits of Calcutta, " Sarasvati, Goddess of 
Wisdom." Coming into contact with the 
famous Hindu reformer, Keshub Chunder Sen, 
Ramabai's faith in idolatry was shaken, and a 
dim consciousness of her relation to God dawned 
upon her. After her husband's death, being 
deeply moved for the cruel sufferings of child- 
wives and child-widows, Ramabai consecrated 
herself to work for their emancipation from 
their awful bondage. 

Going to England in 1883 to seek such train- 
ing as she felt necessary for the successful 
prosecution of this work, the Pundita was soon 
brought into the clear light of Christian faith. 
Her first visit to America, where she travelled 
the length and breadth of the land, telling the 
impassioned story of her sisters' wrongs, led to 
the formation, May 28, 1887, of the Ramabai 
Association, pledged to support for ten years 
a school for high-caste Hindu widows. That 
night she was found sobbing in her room and 
exclaimed, u I am crying for joy that my dream 
of years has become a reality." 


In 1889 her school in Bombay, soon removed 
to Poona, was opened with two pupils. It was 
named Sharada Sadan (Home of Wisdom) and is 
secular. In 1897 Ramabai visited the famine 
district and rescued 800 high-caste girls from 
sin and death. The school she opened for 
them is known as u Mukti " (Salvation) and is 
frankly Christian, as is a third school called 
Kripa Sadan (Home of Grace). In all three 
Ramabai now cares for 2000 of these suffering 
child-widows. ^ir*" 

There are 27,000,000 widows in India to- 
day; 281,000 of them are under fifteen years 
of age ; 14,000 are less than four. Of their 
grievous lot we have read in an earlier chapter. 
"Ask Christian women," said Ramabai, four- 
teen years *ago*, "to help me educate these child- 
widows, for I solemnly believe that this hated 
and despised class of women, educated and en- 
lightened, are by God's grace to redeem India." 

" Seeing Ra/mahaCs great love," said one un- 
der her charge, in explaining how she had been 
led to Christ. This impassioned, motherlike, 
Christlike love is the secret of Ramabai's mar- 
vellous success. 

" 1 was overwhelmed," said Dr. Klopsch, after 
a visit to the schools at Poona, " by the magni- 
tude and quality of the work carried on with 
a success that is almost incredible. Pundita 
Ramabai is surely one of God's chosen ones, 
divinely called to her mission," 


It should be borne in mind that the mighty 
systems of paganism in India, whether Hindu, 
Buddhistic, or Mohammedan, are alike desti- 
tute of all those fruits of Christianity which 
we term charitable, philanthropic, benevolent. 
Where are the hospitals, dispensaries, orphan- 
ages, asylums for the leper, the blind, the 
deaf and mute? They have no place in the 
heathen economy. For this reason there is a 
peculiar significance in such a movement as 
that of Raniabai, suggesting the mighty power 
for its own healing and renovation which 
resides in native India, when once it becomes 
energized by the master-motive of Christian 

(3) Medical. 

The first qualified woman physician who ever 
entered Asia to practise her profession was Miss 
Clara Swain, of Castile, N. Y., who was sent 
out in 1869 by the American Methodist Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society. Miss Swain set- 
tled at Bareilly, and began her work without 
delay with characteristic energy, treating in 
the first six weeks after her aiTival 108 pa- 
tients, while during the first year 1225 patients 
were prescribed for at the mission house, and 
in 1874 the number reached 3000. Early in 
her residence in Bareilly a native gentleman, 
who called her to attend his wife, welcomed her 
with these words : " We need lady physicians 
in India very much, and I have often spoken of 


it to my friends ; but we did not know where 
to look for them, as our women are uneducated, 
and could not study medicine. But light has 
again dawned upon us from America." 

In less tlian three months after her arrival 
Miss Swain formed a class of sixteen native 
educated girls in the study of medicine. Three 
years later thirteen members passed their final 
examination in the presence of two civil sur- 
geons, and were granted certificates of practice 
in all ordinary diseases. 

Dr. Swain carried the gospel with her in all 
her work, the Bible being read and religious 
instruction habitually given in her zenana 
visits, and thus entrance was gained to many 
homes hitherto closed against missionary effort. 
The comment of a Hindu woman to another 
lady physician embodies the point of view of 
many : " Your God must be a very kind, good 
God to send a doctor to the women. None of 
our gods ever sent us a doctor. 77 

In brief time Dr. Swain felt the need of an 
adequate dispensary and a hospital for women. 
The Nawab of Rampore freely gave an estate 
in Bareilly valued at fifteen thousand dollars 
for the purpose. Both buildings were erected 
in 1872 and 1873, at a cost of over ten thou- 
sand dollars, which was borne by the Meth- 
odist Woman's Society at home. The plan of 
the hospital is similar to that of an eastern 
hotel. On a slight elevation stand the build- 


ings, with two rows of dormitories, verandas 
extending the whole length of each. The 
grounds are tastefully laid out, and made beau- 
tiful with tropical shrubbery. The dispensary 
is opened at six o'clock every morning ex- 
cept Sunday. Dispensary cards are printed in 
three different characters, Hindi, Parsi, and 
Urdu. Each card has a verse of Scripture 
printed on the back. It may happen that a 
score of different castes and half a dozen re^ 
ligions will be represented in the consulting 
room in a few months. Bible women work 
among the patients while they wait their 

We have briefly recapitulated the essential 
features of the activity of the first American 
lady physician and described the first woman's 
hospital in India, because they are typical and 
include the main features of all the medical 
missionary work now conducted by nearly 
every Woman's Board which has followed. In 
all we find the welcome to the "Doctor Miss 
Sahib," on the part of natives, high or low; 
the well-equipped dispensary arid hospital ; 
the practice in these and in the home, with the 
strong admixture of religious teaching ; the 
open door to the ztoana, which is firmly closed 
to the male missionaries, whether evangelist or 
physician ; the training of native women in 
nursing, hygiene, and the practice of medicine. 
To these may be added, as the terrible exigen- 

214 LUX CHR18T1 

cies of the late years of plague and famine have 
called for them, relief and diet kitchens, and 
sanitary committee inspection, most important 
in Indian villages, where wells and ponds are 
used alike for bathing, washing of clothing, and 
drinking, and where utter neglect of the com- 
mon laws of cleanliness breeds disease on every 
hand. The barbarous native practice of mid- 
wifery, the inconceivable suffering of the native 
women through the violation of all the laws of 
their physical life, and the iron bonds of super- 
stition laid on all alike, increase the need of 
enlightened medical practice, while they add a 
hundred-fold to the obstacles in its way. 

From an article by Dr. Joyce, of the London 
Missionary Society, we quote : 

"Childbirth brings pollution for a certain 
term of days to an Indian woman. Instead 
of the love and gentle tendance and skilful 
nursing that are given among us to a woman 
in her hour of need, the Indian mother is re- 
garded for the time being as unclean and un- 
approachable by the members of her family. 
No one except a servant or native midwife is 
allowed to attend her. A matted-in portion 
of the veranda, a lumber-room, a cowshed, or 
a coalshed are too often regarded as more than 
sufficient and suitable shelter for the young 
mother. Everything she touches is rendered 
unclean, so the scantiest allowance of necessa- 
ries is given to her. Often in a state of ap- 


palling insanitation, without proper attendance, 
denied the entrance of air and light, unwashed, 
neglected, ill fed and sometimes unfed, the 
young mothers, often themselves mere chil- 
dren in age, pass through their time of trial. 
Many succumb, some emerge, apparently un- 
hurt, too many endure for differing periods of 
years, sometimes for life, suffering engendered 
by want of care and love and skill that should 
have been lavished so freely." > 

A phase of work common among our medical 
missionaries is itinerary practice ; the journey- 
ing from village to village with well -filled medi- 
cine cases, clinics morning, noon, and night, and 
the gospel given all the time. Dr. Pauline Root 
recounts one of her tours, when she often treated 
eighty patients before breakfast and two hun- 
dred and fifty in a day, as a whole village would 
stream out to her little tent, bearing their sick 
folk to lay before her, while she herself had not 
time so much as to eat. 

Truly it is a programme of power immeasur- 
able and of toil unspeakable but full of glory. 
It is a Christlike thing. Perhaps if Protestants 
canonized their 'noblest souls, we should have 
for a saint Mary Reed, the American Methodist 
missionary in Oawnpore, who, in 1890, dis- 
covered that she was herself a leper, and there- 
upon deciding to give what might be left of 
life to work among lepers, withdrew into the 
foothills of the Himalayas to a colony of these 

216 LUX 

smitten outcasts, where to-day she is living in 
cheerful, self-effacing' ministration. 

A Typical Medical Missionary 
We give below a description written very 
recently of a Woman's Board medical mis- 
sionary now in West India, a graduate of 
Wellesley College in 1886, not because we 
believe it to be exceptional but typical, not 
ideal but real: 

" We who live with her cannot adequately 
express our reverence and gratitude for her 
she is so sympathetic, so self-denying, so skilful, 
so Christian, Many are the lives which she 
has saved. I should like to have people in 
America see, as I have done, this cultured 
college lady down on her knees on a dirty, 
earthen floor, in a room full of smoke and 
discomfort, putting her arms around a dirty 
man with blood flowing from his mouth and 
nose, lifting him into a more comfortable posi- 
tion, and applying ice and water to the head 
and neck to stop the flow. Not long ago she 
spent seven nights out of eight in a native 
house caring for a woman who had been given 
up for dead, and for whose funeral people had 
begun to make preparations, and she succeeded 
in bringing her back to health. That woman 
is now a healthy woman in an important home. 
" If one ever visits her dispensary, it is amaz- 
ing to see the crowd that is waiting for her 


ministration. Good-caste women, low-caste 
women, educated women, ignorant women, all 
kinds of children, and outside even many men 
hoping that after the women and children have 
gone they may get some attention." 

Of another the following incident is told: 
" One day, while the name of the patient was 
being written clown in the register, a hand was 
stretched out and put lovingly on the writer's, 
and a voice said gently, 4 Mem Sahib, you are 
like the Lord Jesus.' The question was put, 
4 Why do you say so ? ' Pointing to the 
curtain which divides the veranda from the 
dispensary, she replied, 6 Out there have I 
not heard that Jesus healed the sick, went 
about preaching in the villages, and said kind 
words to women ? ' There was no denying the 
fact. * Well, you do all that, so you are like 
Him.' " 

The increase in woman's medical missionary 
work can be noted by the report of the dis- 
pensary practice of Dr. Julia Bissell at Ah- 
mednagar for 1901, which extended to 81,160 

It is impossible here to recount the steps 
by which the movement has grown, but at the 
present time each auxiliary, whether English, 
Scotch, Canadian, or American, has its medical 
arm^ its own hospitals, and its own staff of 
women practitioners. Never was a more in- 
spiring field of labor open to Christian young 


women physicians than India offers to-day. 
Let it be remembered that male physicians are 
wholly debarred from attendance on the high- 
caste women, who would rather die than be 
seen and cared for by them. 

And for all the millions of suffering women 
in India there are but eighty-five women medi- 
cal missionaries now at work in the field. Of 
these forty-six are English. Although medical 
missions were begun in India by American, 
they have been taken up with more enthusiasm 
by English societies, who, in 1880, sent out the 
first medical missionary of the 0. E. Z. M. S-, 
Dr. Fanny Butler, whose life and work for nine 
years in North India and Kashmir have made 
her name one which can never be forgotten. 

The Countess of Dufferin Fund 

For many years missionaries carried on the 
medical work for women in India alone ; but in 
1885 an incident occurred which has resulted 
in a great secular movement in England in this 
direction tinder royal patronage. We will 
leave the romantic story of the English mis- 
sionary, Miss Bielby, her patient, the Maharani 
of Poona, and her locket with its heart-rending 
message to the Queen of England, for a special 
theme of study. Suffice it to say that the mes- 
sage went straight to the Queen's compassionate 
heart, and in consequence Lady Dufferin, wife 
of the viceroy-elect, who was just sailing for 


India, was commissioned by her Majesty to do 
all within her power to relieve the suffering 
women of India. Wise and prompt in her 
measures, Lacly Dufferiu soon established an 
organization known as the National Associa- 
tion for supplying Female Medical Aid to the 
Women of India, its stated objects being: 
medical tuition, medical relief, and the supply 
of trained mid wives and nurses for women and 
children. A million or more women are treated 
annually, directly or indirectly, by means of 
this powerful agency. 

Mrs. Claxton, who has been president of the 
Woman's Baptist Foreign Missionary Society 
of eastern Ontario since its inception, is in 
receipt of a personal letter from Lady Dufferin, 
written during her residence in India, explicitly 
defining the aims and scope of this organization. 

"The particular need for medical help for 
women in this country," writes Lady Dufferin, 
"is, from the very nature of the subject, one 
upon which it is difficult to write. There can 
be no doubt that marrying extremely young, 
that living a life of extreme seclusion, that 
being often victims of superstitious practices 
and of grossly ignorant treatment, the women 
of India must suffer more than the women of 
other countries. . . . And yet those who are 
the most secluded and are compelled to lead the 
most unhealthful lives, are absolutely debarred 
from any medical relief unless it can be brought 

220 iirjt CHRISTI 

them by women. . . . There is on point on 
which, however, I would like to make the matter 
clear to you. Personally, I sympathize warmly 
with medical missions and medical missionaries ; 
but the money subscribed to the national asso- 
ciation of which I am the trustee is entirely de- 
voted to secular medical work, and it has been 
subscribed on the understanding that the work 
of the association should be strictly unseotarian. 
There is in this great country room and to 
spare for both missionary and non-missionary 
organizations. " 

American women will be interested to know 
that Lady Curzon, who, by virtue of her office 
as vicereine of India, has now become president 
o the Lady Dufferin Fund, enters with energy 
and sympathy upon this work. While all must 
welcome the humane labors of the association, 
it remains to be said that the, fact that those who 
accept its scholarships and work in its hospitals 
and dispensaries are not allowed to speak of Ohrist 
in their professional work, remains a serious 
drawback to its power for good. 



(Written for tlie Lady Duffeiin Fund for Medical Aid to the 
Women of India) 

How shall she know the worship we would do her ! 

The walls are high, and she Is very far. 
How shall the women's message reach unto her 

Above the tumult of the packed bazaar? 
Free wind of March against the lattice blowing, 
Bear thou our thanks, leat she depart unknowing. 

Go forth across the fields we may not roam in; 

Go forth beyond the trees that rim the city, 
To whatsoe'er fair place she hath her home in, 

Who dowered us with wealth of love and pity ; 
Out of our shadow pass and seek her, singing, 
" I have no gifts but love alone for bringing." 

Say that we be a feeble folk who greet her, 
But old in grief, and very wise in tears ; 

Say that we, being desolate, entreat her 
That she forget us not in after years j 

For we have seen the light, and it were grievous 

To dim that dawning if our lady leave us. 

By life that ebbed w|th none to stanch the failing, 
By love's sad harvest garnered in the spring, 

When love in ignorance wept unavailing 
O'er young buds dead before their blossoming ; 

By all the gray owl watched, the pale moon viewed, 

In past grim years, declare our gratitude ! 

By hands uplifted to the gods that hear not, 
By gifts that found no favor in, their sight, 

By faces bent above the babe that stirred not, 
By nameless horrors of the stifling night, 

By ills foredonc, by peace, her toils discover, 

Bid earth be good beneath and heaven above her. 

222 LUX 

Go forth, O wind, our message on thy wings, 
And they shall hear thee pass and bid thee speed, - 

In reed-roofed hut, or white-walled home of kings, - 
Who have been helpen by her in their need, 

All spring shall give thee fragrance, and the wheat 

Shall be a tasselled floor cloth to thy feet. 

Haste, for our hearts are with thee ; take no rest, 
Load-voiced ambassador, from sea to sea. 

Proclaim the blessing, manifold, confest, 
Of those in darkness, by her hand set free ; 

Then very softly to her presence move, 

And whisper, " Lady, lo, they know and love ! " 



O Father of the world, hast Thou not created us ? Or 
has, perchance, some other god made us? Dost Thou 
care only for men? Hast Thou no thought for us 
women? Why hast Thou created us male and female? 
Almighty, hast Thou not power to make us other than 
we are, that we, too, might have some share in the com- 
forts of this life? God, Almighty and Unapproach- 
able, think upon Thy mercy, which is a vast sea, and 
remember us. Lord, save us," for we cannot bear our 
hard lot; many of us have killed ourselves, and we are 
still killing ourselves. God of mercy, our prayer to 
Thee is this, that the curse may be removed from the 
women of India. 


She who, at Ava and at Oung-pen-la, 
Won brutal men to softness by her grace, 
Illumined prison glooms with her sweet face, 

And on despair fihone like a morning star. 


Her self, lier story, and her sufferings won 
Homage from men, as if she came from heaven, 
In whose stout hearts she left a little leaven, 

Whose sacred working may outlive the sun. 



I beg of my western sisters not to be satisfied with 
looking on the outside beauty of the grand philosophies, 
and not to be charmed with hearing the long and inter- 
esting discourses of our educated men, but to open the 
trap-doors of the great monuments of ancient Hindu 
intellect, and enter into the dark cellars, where they will 
see the real workings of the philosophies which they ad- 
mire so much. Let our western friends come to India 
and live right among us. Let them frequently go to 
the hundreds of sacred places where countless pilgrims 
throng yearly. Let them go round the strongholds of 
Hinduism and seats of sacred learning, where the Ma- 
hatmas and Sadhus dwell, and where the "sublime" 
philosophies are daily taught and followed. There they 
will find that the men who boast superior Hindu spiritu- 
ality oppress widows and trample the poor under their 
heels. They have deprived the widows of their birth- 
right to enjoy pure life and lawful happiness. They 
send out hundreds of emissaries to look for young widows, 
and bring them by thousands to the sacred cities to rob 
them of their money and their virtue. The so-called 
sacred places those veritable hells on earth have be- 
come the graveyards of countless widows and orphans, 
but not a philosopher or Mahatma has come out boldly 
to champion their cause. PCTNDITA R.AMABAI. 

If you English and American ladies accomplish nothing 
else in India, be sure and do all you can to break up the 
custom of early marriage. 

224 xror CHRISTI 


One interesting fact regarding our hospital patients 
may be taken as absolutely true : the change in face 
undergone by those who are learning about .Christ. I 
have seen this over and over again, and, on asking others, 
they have told me the same thing. Their faces seem 
positively plastic under the moulding of the Holy Spirit* 
The dull, unintelligent look that so many of the quite 
ignorant wear on first coming into the wards changes in 
as short a period as two or three weeks into a far more 
intelligent and brighter "fades" to use a medical term. 
We doctors speak of the fades Hippocratid and tib&facies 
of this or that disease, but, thank God! this is & fades of 
life, everlasting life, and not of death or disease. 

From the Church Missionary Intelligencer, 1901. 



" Travellers in India," remarked my friend, with his 
cheery smile, " report us missionaries as living in luxury, 
waited on by troops of servants, demoralizing native sim- 
plicity by an impracticable morality, and that the upshot 
of our work is to make them hypocritically profess a faith 
they don't believe in in order to curry favor, and to ruin 
them with the vices of civilization instead of saving them 
with its virtues. Well, now you have a chance to see 
how it is for yourself." 

The household consisted of the missionary and his 
wife and a young lady who was assisting them ; three or 
four immaculate Mohammedan servants, at wages of from 
one to two dollars a month ; a horse and buggy ; a chapel ; 
and within the walls of the compound some ranges of 
neat buildings for the accommodation of the native chil- 
dren who were supported and instructed by the mission. 


The family sat down thrice a day to a wholesome "but 
Spartan meal. The husband worked with all his might 
from dawn to dark, and after dark in his study, helping 
distress, averting evil, enlightening ignorance, and pray- 
ing with heart and soul to the God and Christ, who was 
more real to him than any earthly thing. His lovely, 
artless, human, holy wife, with faith like a little child's, 
and innocent as a child, yet wise and steadfast in all that 
touched her work, labored as untiringly and selflessly as 
her husband. There were perhaps a hundred native 
children, either orphaned or deserted, who had begun 
to get flesh on their bones and were busy and happy in 
learning to read and write their native language, and in 
singing hymns of praise to the new living God who loves 
children, and in listening to stories of this same God's 
loving dealings with His children. They also learned 
for the first time in their lives what it was to be clean, 
to be regularly and abundantly fed, and to be treated 
with intelligent and tinselfish affection. These children 
would have died of the famine had not the mission found 
and saved them. But though the surroundings and in- 
fluences were of the loveliest Christian kind, there was 
no trace of that fanatical hunger for nominal converts 
that blind eagerness to fasten the badge of the cross on 
the sleeve, whether or not it were in the heart which 
has often been, ascribed to missionary work. From first 
to last, during my sojourn in India, I saw many native 
Christians. Those that I saw are a remarkable and im- 
pressive body of men and women. I was always saying 
to myself, " They are like the people of the Bible." Some 
wore European dress, others did not. Their aspect was 
gentle, sincere, and modest. Cleanliness is one of the 
distinguishing marks of the homes of native Christians 
in India. 

One morning we went to an outlying village to visit 
a native preacher, spending an hour at his house, The 
women of his family were modestly silent, unless they 


were questioned directly. They were very gentle and 
happy-looking women ; the expression in their faces was 
quite different from that of the pagan women. Their 
eyes met my eyes with a soft, trustful; guileless look. I 
felt respect and tenderness for them. A little apart 
squatted an old woman, one of the skeletons. But for 
the mission support she must have died. She had suf- 
fered the extreme of misery ; there was nothing left in 
the world of whatever had been hers ; but she seemed to 
feel the assurance that, living or dead, she would hence- 
forth be taken care of, and nofc robbed and outraged any 
more. So long as she lived she could come here twice a 
day and be fed and gently treated. She did not know 
what Christianity was, but she knew that its effects on 
her were good. 

Behind the others, in a drooping posture, with her 
grievous young face bent down, sat a widow with her 
child. To the people of her own race and creed she was 
an accursed thing, to be used like a dog. She had sur- 
vived her husband, and now any man who deigned to 
touch her uncleanly worthlcssness might dispose of her 
at his pleasure; she had no rights. Her very child, 
should it live long enough to comprehend her position, 
would turn from her in contempt. The curse of 
thousands of years weighed her down, and she believed 
in its justice as much as did any of them. She could 
not understand why these Christians treated her with HO 
much kindness. JULIAN HAWTHOKNE. 

The threshold weeps for forty days when a girl in 
born. Arabic Proverb. 


It is the fond and patriotic ambition of the son of 
wealthy parents in Britain to serve his country in India, 
Africa, or China, either as soldier or civil servant. When 


the boy goes out to this service, no mother considers it a 
sacrifice, no father thinks his son has acted like a fool. 
Yet he goes to face danger, often death. He has to be 
largely supplied from the parental fortune to sustain the 
honor of his regiment. He does not go to make money. 

Christians of wealth and rank consider it an honor and 
a privilege to send their sons abroad for such a purpose. 
To equip and endow a son for this service is no sacrifice, 
no hardship. But when it is proposed to do the same for 
missionary service, they reverse every principle of their 
former action. Foreign service is dangerous to health ; it 
is a great sacrifice to send the young people from home. 
It is even considered a lowering of the social status ; and 
the rich Christian father who would boast of his son's 
appointment to a crack regiment or a diplomatic mission 
would lament his ordination to a medical mission or a 
foreign college. 

Many a rich Christian mother would regard a daughter 
as hopelessly lost to society by taking up zenana work 
in India or medical service in China ; but she would be 
delighted to send her to either country as the wife of an 
officer or civil servant. Climate would be robbed of its 
terrors if "prospects" were bright for a fashionable 
career. DAVID BEATON. 

" Where wast Thou sick, Lord, and we knew it not ? 

Had we but known, how swift had been our feet 

To bear us to Thy couch ! Ah I service sweet 

To watch beside Thee in the dreariest spot/* 

" Far off: I lay, in heathen lands forgot 

By thee and all. The blood of lepers beat 

In the poor limbs. . . . The sun 

Shone in an Indian room ; thou didst not see 

My form on that bare floor. Those broken hearts 

Thou didst not bind. For that thou hast not done 

It unto those, thou didst it not to Me." E. F. F. 


When I find a field too hard for a man, I put in a 
woman.. We have grand men ; but of forty stations that 
I have opened in wild heathen nations, eight of them are 
manned by female heroines. BISHOP TAYLOR. 

Until all Christian women have learned that the cross 
of Christ is not to be snug about nor wept over, nor 
smothered in. flowers, but set up in the midst of our 
pleasures ; that our Lord never commanded us to cling 
to that cross, but to carry it, the work of the missionary 
circle will not be done, nor its warfare accomplished. 

I have been in India twenty years, and if I had twenty 
lives to live T would give them all for India. There is 
no work which God has given to woman which exceeds 
in beauty and grandeur the work which is to be done by 
women for the women of India. 

MBS. J. C. 



L Ann II. Judtfon, Burma's Saint* 
II, Early Heroines of Indian Missions. 1 

III. Women of Xote in Indian Missions during the 

Last Quarter Century. 1 

IV. Infanticide and Sutfceo: Purposes and History of 


V. Comparative Study in Social, Personal, and Mental 
Characteristics of the Native Women, Hindu, 
Mohammedan, Eurasian, and Parsi. 
VI. Native Medical, Sanitary, and Hygienic Practices. 
VII. "Clinical Christianity." 
VIII. The Story of Mary Reed. 
IX. Notable Native Christians (Women), 
X. Poona; its Christian Schools and India's Child 


XI. The Countess of Dirfferin Association. 
XII. Native College Women in India and what they 
are Doing. 


General reference as for preceding chapter. In addi- 
tion ; Denim's " Chrintian Missions and Social Progress," 
Fuller's ** WrongH of Indian Womanhood," and Storrow's 
" Our Sisters in India." " Woman'** Work for Woman, 1 ' 
in Vol. IT, u Encyclopaedia of Missions/" is especially use- 
ful on this chapter. 

For particular reference on themes given above : 

Barnes's "Between Life and Death," III, V, VI, VII. 
Cams- Wilson's " Life of Irene Petrie,*' HI, V. 

1 Let each society study the heroines of other denomina- 
tions as well as itH own. 


Chamberlain's " The Cobra's Den," VII. 

Chapman's " Sketches of Distinguished Indian Women," 
V, IX, XII. 

Ball's " Dr. Anandibai Josliee," VI, VII, IX, 

Dyer's " Ptmdita Ilaniabai," IX, X. 

Mrs. Gracey's "Eminent Missionary Women/' 1, II, III, 

Mrs. Gracey's " Woman's Medical Work," II, III, VI, VII. 

Hopkins' " Within the Purdah," VI, VII. 

Humphreys' " Gems of India " (Native Women of Din- 
tinction), V. 

Hurst's " Indika," X, XT, XII. 

Jackson's "Mary Reed, Missionary to the Lepers/* VIII. 

Judsoii's " Life of Adoniram Judson," I ? II. 

Leonowens's " Life and Travel," V. 

Lowe's "Medical Missions," VI, VII. 

Piersoix's "Forward Movements of the Last Half Cen- 
tury," X. 

Pitman's " Missionary Heroines," III. 

Ramabai's " High-caste Hindu Widow," IV, X. 

Miss Sorabji's "Love and Life behind the Purdah," T\% 
V, XII. 

Thoburn's "India and Malaysia," III, V, IX, XT, XII. 

" Sooboonagam Ammal," V, IX. 

Williamson's "The Healing of the Nations/* VI, VI L 


#0 centuries . . growth for Hinduism. 
1*88,000,000 . . , population. 
&$,000,000 . , . heathen deities (estimated), 
8,400,000 . . . reincarnations for the soul in popular 

2411,000,000 . . , of the population who can neither read 

nor write. 

144,000,000 . . . women who can neither read nor write. 
40,000,000 , . , women secluded in zenanas, 

11,573 . . . devadania in Madras presidency alone 

in 188L 

0,000,000 . . . wives tinder 14 years. 
2,500,000 . . , wives under 10 years, 
27,000,000 . . . widows. 

250,000 . . . widows under 14 years. 
14,000 . . , widows under 4 years. 
25 per cent of Hindu women who die prematurely through 

effects of early marriage. 
25 per cent more who are invalided by the same cause. 

500,000 . . . lepers* 
50,000,000 . . outcasts or pariahs. 

500>000 , , , persons to every physician, government 

servants included, 

433*000 . , souls in Haidarabad to each missionary. 
20,000,000 . . . souls In Behar unreached by Christian 


One century . . growth for Protestant Christianity. 
Half a century . enlightened British rule, 
21,855 . . miles of railroad. 
18,000 . . miles of canals for navigation and irri- 

50,000 . , miles of macadamized roads. 
30,000 . * . miles of telegraph. 
150,000 * . . institutions of learning, English and 

under Chris- 
tian mission- 
ary control. 

Continued from page 231. 

5,000,000 . . . students, of whom 400,000 are female. 
30,000 . . . university students (of whom but 7 per 

cent are Mohammedan). 
1,380 . . . B.A. degrees conferred in 1807. 
6,000 . . . volumes published yearly. 
1,000,000 . . . women treated in 1807 by Dufferin 


122 ... hospitals, 
264 . . . dispensaries, 
184 ... fully qualified physi- 

65 ... asylums for lepers and 
children of lepers, j 
1,800 . . . evangelistic missionaries. 
6,770 . . . native Christian workers, male and fe- 
male, ordained and unordained. 
2,923,340 . . . Christians of every name. 

41 ... Protestant missionary publishing houses. 
145 . . . Protestant Christian periodicals, 
84 ... tongues into which portions of Bible 

have been translated. 

391 . . . branches of Y. M. C. A. and Y, W. 0. A. 
397 . . . societies of Y. P. C. JB. 
10 per cent . . . increase of Hinduism ") 

10 per cent . . . increase of Mohammedan- I 1001 

ism ^1881-1801. 

20 per cent . . . increase of Christianity 



a Ho ealkith to mo out of Seir : * Watchman, "what of 
tlm night? Watchman, what of the night?* The 
watchman said, * The morning coineth.' " 

WE have now reached the point from which 

we must seek to estimate, in view of what has 

been accomplished in India for good and for God, 
what obstacles confront us and what grounds 

we havo for both anxiety and good cheer. It 

is a study in chiaroscuro^ the clear obscure, for 
India is a land of twilight, where night and day 

are struggling in long conflict. It rests "with 
Christian "England and Christian America, under 
God, to determine whether the forces of light 
shall prevail* 

We have seen that England, with its civil- 
izing power, has been politically supreme in 
India for a century and a half, and for more 
than a century European and American Chris- 
tians have been carrying the Christ-light into 
the gloom. 

The conversion of India from idolatry, which 

ixmst soon follow the noble work of the last 

century, if western Christendom but awakens 

to its present opportunity and crisis, is in a 



peculiar sense the enterprise immediately before 
the church. India is the key to the eastern 
world ; the point of vantage which, once gained, 
will command all Asia ; the strategic position 
to win. It has been called the " Gibraltar of 
Paganism" and the "Rudder of Asia." In it 
are met the great races, the great languages, 
the great religions of the Oriental world, and 
these are held under the central control of a 
great Anglo-Saxon power. Buddhism, Parseo- 
ism, Islam, and Hinduism can all be grappled 
with on this one field as they can be nowhere 
else. The English speech and the English 
civilization form media of communication 
throughout the vast peninsula. Missions and 
missionaries are therefore under powerful pro- 
tection, and are furnished with facilities for the 
prosecution of their work beyond what can be 
found in any other Asiatic land. "The com- 
plete conquest of the Brahman and Moham- 
medan of India by the cross," says George 
Smith, " will be to all Asia what the submission 
of Constantine was to the Roman empire," If 
there is faltering, reaction, relaxed effort at 
this crisis, however, not only is the present 
opportunity lost, but the fruits of the past and 
the hopes of the future are lost also. 

Light is shining in India, but the great cen- 
tral gloom, into which its rays have not yet 
penetrated, must sober us, and check too san- 
guine expectation. 



An Alloyed Ohrmtianity 

We must first name a widely prevailing class 
of professing Christians at home, men and women 
of a narrow type of religions life and a shallow 
type of religious devotion, of whom it may bo 
sadly admitted : 

" They lived for themselves, they thought for 

For themselves and none beside,- 
As if Jesus Christ had never lived, 
And aa if he had never died."" 

Perhaps wo may more definitely say: The 
indifferent, the self-centred American Christian 
(for we must confine ourselves to those we 
know best) IB the greatest obstacle to the 
conversion of India, for the unit of foreign 
missionary enterprise is the unit of personal 
religion. " Ye are the salt of the earth, but if 
the salt hath lost its savor, wherewith shall it 
be salted?" 

Foreign Mumms not Fashionable 

There is undeniably a deep-seated and wide- 
spread indifference to the missionary work of 
the church, abiding strangely side by side with 
a revival of altruistic energy in certain humani- 
tarian directions in our own country. Social 
settlement work, for instance, in New York or 

236 xi7X cintiSTi 

Chicago, receives a cordial hearing in circles 
where the sublimest social settlement work ever 
attempted "by men and women the lifelong 
residence of refined and cultured Christian 
people among the foul and abhorrent scenes of 
heathendom, in Christ's name is utterly ig- 
nored, and its claims are passed by with cold 
and slighting indifference. Whether this fact 
argues more strongly the lack of knowledge, 
the lack of imagination, or the lack of broad 
sympathies, might be worth discussing. The 
condition exists, and is manifested in many 
forms. Foreign missions haye never been a 
fashionable charity. They are too profoundly 
in earnest, too irrevocable in the surrender for 
which they call, too searching in the self-denial. 

Wealth and Luxury 

All students of our time agree that never 
in the history of the country was such empha- 
sis laid on the gaining of wealth by men, on 
the enjoyment of material luxury by women, 
as now. Everything is rated by its money 
yalue. This is the shadow upon American life. 
Self-denial, willingly practised for the sake of 
others a generation ago, is fallen out of fashion 
in the life of to-day, for it wilts like a plucked- 
up plant under the fierce heat of mammon 
worship and passion for the power that money 
can give. "The moral sag" of humanity is 
sadly observable as we look around us to-day 


and sec the mercenary and selfish aims of young 

men whose fathers or grandfathers consecrated 
all they had to the service of Christ and 1m- 
manity. With wealth and the love of luxury 

and display, in dress and in social life, has come 
the craving for amusement and diversion as 
occupations, not incidents* It Is needless to 
enumerate the varied forms in which this crav- 
ing for diversion Is embodied ; the extraordinary 
vogue through almost all classes of society of 
card-playing for prizes, sufficiently attests it* 
Numberless women's clxibs in our cities and 
towns contribute to the manifold complexity of 
modern social life as well us to the divided mind 
and tho shallow thinking which neutralize the 
missionary spirit. Minds thus prepared to seek 
an easy escape from serious responsibility for 
the world's uplifting are ripe for tho seed 
thought which will not fail to fall into such 
soil, vix,, that each ethnic religion is the best 
adapted to its own people; Hinduism for the 
Hindus, Islam for the Mohammedans, etc. 
Why should Occidental peoples seek to force 
their religion on reluctant nations well satisfied 
with their own faith,? Close following this fatal 
fallacy of selfishness comes a curiosity, half idle, 
half morbid, to dip Into these other religions a 
little, while dipping (also a little) Into nearly 
everything else, and in brief time we have our 
Christian women prattling of the beauties of 
Buddhism, and the unspeakable elevation of 


Hindu philosophy, led on by Madam Blavat- 
sky, Annie Besant, and their followers. 

Reaction upon Foreign Missions of Theosophy 
and Kindred Cults 

It would be well for the women who still call 
themselves Christian, but who like to hover 
about the seething caldron of heathenism, to be 
reminded of the stern consequences upon India 
which their disloyalty to their Lord involves. 
The earth is not so large as it used to be. 
Electricity and steam have almost annihilated 
time and space, and what goes on in secluded 
drawing-rooms of Boston and New York Ls 
known erelong in the homes of Brahmans in 
Calcutta and Bombay. 

"How do you dare to come over hero and 
preach Christianity to us?" is the question now 
frequently addressed to our missionaries all over 
India, " when we are told that in your own 
country many of the people consider our Hindu 
religion better than their own?'* "Over and 
over," a missionary newly returned from India 
told the writer recently, " has this question boon 
put to xne, until I have gone home and cried my 
heart out for sheer discouragement." 

Have not our missionaries enough to bear 
without this treacherous betrayal on the part 
of their fellow-Christians at home ? Let every 
woman remember that when she patronizes lec- 
tures on " the Occult," flatters Swaim^ and 


espouses theosophu* subtleties, she is not only 

weakening by so much the progress of the sav- 
ing knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ, but 
she is by so much strengthening the loathsome, 

degrading, and licentious rites of the Hindu 
system, and furthering the reactionary move- 
ment away from reform and back to Hinduism, 
which has arisen among certain circles in India 
where Mrs. Besant\s influence has been felt. 

Says the Indian Social Meformer: "Mrs, 
Besant is mainly responsible for much of the 
mischievous results of the reactionary move- 
ment. She upheld the most grotesque practices; 
she idealised some of the least useful customs 
of Hindu society. Her sex, her eloquence, her 
antecedents, her nationality, all told in her favor. 
. , . Mrs. JBe$ant hm been a retrograde engine to 
the Hindu rac?e, and the deadening effects of her 
influence have been felt not only in social reform, 
but along all lines of national activity*" 

American women, whatever their creed, may 
well pause before enlisting under that banner! 
It is common for the imitators of Mrs. Besant 
to even defend the customs of polygamy and 
child-marriage, and the cruelties of child- widow- 
hood, and in idle dilettanteism, those who at 
heart know better accept the defence and gladly 
drop all further sense of responsibility. " It is 
hard for us workers in India," says Robert P. 
Wilder, u to find that the foe is employing against 
us weapons forged in Christian countries."" 


The Comparative Meagreness of Money Contri- 
butions toward Foreign Missions 

As wealth has increased in the United States, 
a new type of pleasure and luxury-loving- women 
have been evolved, as we have seen, following 
many fads and spending money for social and 
domestic gratification with unparalleled profu- 
sion. Along with this, a marked tendency to 
exalt intellectual attainment and a species of 
worship of higher education have arisen. These 
tendencies have led to the most magnificent en- 
dowment and enrichment by Christian capital- 
ists of all means and institutions for intellectual 
progress at home, but without accompanying or 
commensurate increase of gifts for the Chris- 
tianizing or uplifting of the heathen world. 
One of the wealthiest and most influential de- 
nominations in the country reports 2224 of its 
churches as giving absolutely nothing last year 
to Foreign Missions. Another great denomina- 
tion reports 5400 churches out of 10,000. 

It is evident that India cannot be won for 
Christ without constant advance into new fields 
and constant additions to the working force* 
In place of this, in place of seizing strategic 
points at which to plant new centres of light 
and influence, in place of seeing the royal 
banners forward go, the dull, heart-breaking 
watchword ever passed from sentinel to sen- 
tinel all along the line of darkened India IB: 


"Retrench I retrench! No money in the 

treasury! Call back the flag!" 

The Son of God goes forth to war, but his 
church at large deserts at the pinch those who 
follow in his train, and watches them a moment 

with cold indifference as they climb the steep 
asf.enfe alone, with, peril, toil, and pain, and then 
turns back unmoved to the farm, to the mer- 
chandise, to the counting-room, and the card- 

Should the Christian business men of America 
once take upon their hearts the indescribable 
suffering and degradation of India's millions, 
never again need that ignominious, that shame- 
ful word "Retrench" (Retreat) be passed 
around the fainting land. 

We have considered several leading causes 
resident in our own land which contribute their 
force to keep the light of Christ out of India. 
We will turn next to India itself and glance 
at certain hindrances peculiar to the conditions 
existing there, outside of the broad, general 
facts of heathenism itself. Among these diffi- 
culties we will briefly mention ; > 

Interested Motives and Incomplete Conversion 

of Natives 

There is a tendency among the lower classes, 
in their extreme poverty and superstition, to 
welcome missions, and perhaps especially medi- 
cal missions, for the material advantage gained, 


simply adding to their many divinities another 
who for the time seems to respond more sig- 
nally than the earlier ones to their petitions for 
temporal relief. 

Self-sufficiency of Srahmanism 
Next, a confidence in the superiority of their 
own religion to all others, always met with 
among Brahmans, professing as they do to have 
gone far beyond the Christian's conception. 
One of them declared in this country: *If a 
minute history of India could be written for the 
last six thousand years, there would be descrip- 
tions of many miracles performed by our sages 
as remarkable as any attributed to Christ. The 
Hindu can himself confidently hope some day, 
on this very earth, clothed in flesh and blood, 
to become Christ." y 

Furthermore, the greit and growing student 
body in the five universities (the largest in the 
Orient) is very largely made up of Brahmans. 
There are, for instance, four times as many 
Brahman as non-Brahman graduates from 
Madras University, although the Brahman popu- 
lation is not one-fifth of the whole population. 
The Brahmans thus possess the aristocracy both 
of birth and of learning, and are the recognized 
leaders. Their intellectual strength and sub- 
tlety, combined with the self-confidence already 
mentioned, which the non-Christian training of 
the universities in no way weakens but rather 


increases, make them formidable opponents of 


Men like these are difficult of access, and can 
be convinced only by thoroughly trained minds. 
The loss of position, property, and friends often 

entailed upon the higher castes if they submit to 
baptism, is sufficient also to turn aside maxiy. It 
is not strange that the great ingatherings of the 
past century have been from among low-caste or 
non-caste peoples, as the Kols, Karens, and Telu- 
gus. While this fact may in the end conduce to 
the levelling of caste distinctions by the uplifting 
of Sudras and Pariahs, it remains to be said that 
to reach the Brahmans adequately and intelli- 
gently is at once extremely difficult and ex- 
tremely necessary. 

Caste a>nd Fdicdism 

Again, the obstinacy of caste and other para- 
lyzing social customs, and the ever present fa- 
talism, create a profound, and in some cases an 
almost unconquerable, apathy toward new light 
or life or hope. u Whatever is written upon our 
own foreheads will come to pass," is a common 
saying among Hindus as well as Mohammedans ; 
as also, " We must walk according to custom," 
and " Different religions are roads leading to the 
same city." The conviction that millions of 
rebirths await every soul, and the absence of 
a sense of sinf ulness, weaken the force of the 
Christian motive and appeal* 


Gf-ood and Evil Influences in the Dritisli 

When we now find It necessary to take a 
cursory view of the Britisli in India, we find a 
most complex study in tlie clear-obscure, for 
here, indeed, light and darkness commingle in 
bewildering forms. With some things to do* 
plore, there is yet so much in which to rejoice 
that we may well let this subject occupy the 
middle ground through which we shall presently 
pass into the region of light. 

It is the fixed and perhaps necessary policy of 
the government, as we have seen in previous 
chapters, punctiliously to abstain from any mani- 
festation of sympathy with or explicit further- 
ance of Christianity in India, or to interfere in 
any degree with the debasing idolatry of the 
people. This must always be kept distinctly in 
mind. The government schools, of whatever 
grade, never trench upon either religiotis or 
moral questions; and unless supplemented by 
missionary endeavor, the English occupation can 
never affect the heart and conscience of India. 
The Hindus, to whom religion is a rule of life 
governing every smallest detail, cannot under- 
stand a nation which appears to ignore its own 
religion. They infer that the British have either 
no religion or none which is worth putting for- 
ward, and a contempt for Christianity thus 


New India 

AH a consequence, then, of the progress of 
civilization without Christianity, we are begin- 
ning to sec rising out of the dim chaos of old 
India a new and still pagan India, self-conscious, 

knowing^ cynical as regards Christianity, inflated 
with a sublime sense of its own importance and 
an overweening opinion of its own sufficiency. 
This new India is filled with men devoid of 
moral foundation, who have learned, outwardly 
at least, to acorn the puerile superstitions of their 
past, and to blush at the hideous idolatries of the 
less enlightened of their countrymen, but who 
have taken into their minds no purer faith, no 
guiding light of divine love. This condition of 
things calls urgently for prompt action on the 
part of the Christian church, upon which is thus 
laid, in a peculiar sense, the definite responsi- 
bility of supplementing Anglo-Saxon civilization 
with Anglo-Saxon Christianity. 

Says the Indian Witness ; " India cannot wait, 
simply because in her case waiting means the 
adoption of European civilization without Euro- 
pean Christianity ; and the work of moral and 
spiritual regeneration will be inconceivably more 
difficult than it would be were the gospel given 
to her during the days of her transition. . . . 
If the change is completed without the Bible, 
and the new civilization of India crystallizes into 
u godless, irreligious life, It will be almost im- 


possible to make any moral Impression upon it 
by teaching Christian doctrine. It is 4 now or 
never/ almost." 

The Opium Trade 

The support of the opium trade by the British 
government in India, the large revenue which it 
draws from the liquor traffic, its practice of issu- 
ing licenses to prostitutes, and the immorality 
of the army, have been again and again cast in 
the teeth of Christian missionaries. 

The awful results of the opium traffic in 
India are beginning to arouse the attention of 
the world. Between five and six thousand tons 
of opium are sent from India to China annually 
as an article of English trade, from which the 
government derives a large annual revenue, 
while the former viceroy of India was the largest 
manufacturer of opium in the world. China has 
begged and struggled to be delivered from this 
curse ; and Burma, in which the introduction of 
opium was prohibited by law until its annexa- 
tion by the British, was said to be " literally on 
its knees praying the British government not 
to introduce the scourge." Christians in Eng- 
land protest and petition, and a harmless resolu- 
tion condemning the traffic has even been passed 
in Parliament. Meanwhile the traffic and the 
habit grow apace. The rate of increase in the 
consumption of opium in the Bombay presi- 
dency alone, according to official reports, has 


been al the rate of 549 per cent since 1870. 
The terms of the license to sell the drug fix the 
minimum quantity which must be sold under 
penalty of line. 

"The iftjWjf to missions by opium," writes 
Dennis, "is something incalculable, and the 
issue between righteousness and humanity on 
the one hand, and iniquity and callous greed 
on the other, is both sharp and irrepressible. 
This traffic in opium has been called c , Eng- 
land's greatest contribution to the world's 
wretchedness.' " 

The conscience of Christian England is rest- 
less over the course of the government in this 
matter, for provision for continuing the recent 
policy has been incorporated in the new treaty 
with China, and the supply of opium from India 
has been guaranteed anew. At a meeting just 
held in London to oppose the traffic. Sir Joseph 
Pease, M.P., pointed out that those who deem 
the opium trade immoral and antagonistic to the 
principles of true Christianity have to fight the 
Indian government. The trade, he said, was 
maintained on the most false of all moral argu- 
ments, viz., that if they did not do it, some one 
else would. Moral retribution, he declared, 
was as certain as the sunrise. 

The old leaven of selfish commercialism be- 
longing to the East India Company has never 
been wholly eliminated from British rule. This 
mercenary policy and the moral timidity which 


it engenders militate seriously against the en- 
lightenment of India. 

Mutual Antagonisms of English and Indians 
Akin to this, a part indeed of ti^ same thing, 
is the common, although happily not universal, 
indifference of the English residents in India 
to the uplifting of the natives, and the object 
lessons of woiidliness and lax morality set con- 
stantly before the eyes of the people in the so- 
cial life and in the pursuit of pleasure of the 
"white foreigners." The abstemious Hindu 
scarcely conceals his contempt for the gross 
indulgence of his English conquerors in. brandy 
and beer-drinking and in gluttony; for their 
half-savage love for the chase and the destruc- 
tion of animal life ; for their idolatry of money- 
getting, eclipsing all nobler pursuits. 

On the other hand, the English, whether 
soldier or civilian, is outspoken in his disgust 
for the idolatrous, fawning, treacherous natives. 
" To affect deep interest in things native is in- 
correct," says Isabel Savory, the Indian traveller. 
"A lady was asked what she had seen of the 
people since she came out, ' Oh, nothing ! J said 
she. 'Thank goodness, I know nothing at all 
about them, and don't wish to ; really, I think 
the less one sees and knows about them the 
better.'" To this common attitude we are 
glad to believe there are honorable and not 
infrequent exceptions. 


Those are some of the darker aspects of 
British occupation; meanwhile there is much 

to consider in abatement of these evils. Peace, 
a wise and firm execution of justice, a highly 
centralized administration of public affairs, a 
much lower rate of taxation than under the 
Mughals, government schools, universities, hos- 
pitals, railroads, telegraph systems, a free press, 
material progress everywhere, mark the Anglo- 
Saxon rule in India since the middle of the 
nineteenth century. Moreover, since the proc- 
lamation of 1858, the British government has 
held consistently to its impartial policy, and 
has protected Christians as well as heathen in 
the exercise of their religion; it has even of 
lato years invited missionaries to open schools, 
and has largely withdrawn its patronage of 
idolatry, although quantities of Hindu idols are 
still manufactured in England for export. We 
have already seen that the British government, 
at the instance of missionaries, has abolished 
certain of the more horrible of Hindu social 
and religious crimes, such as suttee, thuggee, 
female infanticide, human sacrifice, etc. With 
great energy, indeed, has it aimed to discharge 
the task of introducing western civil and criminal 
law, western science, and western industry into 
its great dependency. 

In p, sense, all that ministers to the advance 
of civilization and education furthers the mis- 
sionary enterprise, at least to the extent of fa- 


cilitating its external progress and neutralizing 
the power of superstition. It must, however, 
be admitted that the railroads which help the 
missionary to reach a circuit of villages with 
the good news of the kingdom, also make a 
hundred-fold easier, and consequently more 
popular, the attendance on the awful debauch- 
ery of Hindu festivals and pilgrimages. That 
the spread of bare knowledge, unilluminated by 
spiritual teaching, is powerless to overcome the 
deep-seated immorality of the race, has been 
only too abundantly proved ; and human souls 
are not carried into Christ's kingdom by rail 
and telegraph* 

or JKeform&d JBKnduum 

Belonging also in the debatable realm where 
light and darkness meet, are the various at- 
tempts which have been made, since 1880, by 
native Hindus, to effect a reform of their own 
religion. Profoundly stirred by the influences 
of Christianity, filled with new and nobler as- 
pirations for purer worship, and yet not wholly 
ready to break with their inherited faith, these 
undoubtedly sincere men have sought to coor- 
dinate Hinduism with Christianity and to form 
an eclectic religion a composite of the doc- 
trines of the Christian Scriptures, the Veda, 
Koran, and Zend-Avesta. 

llammohun Roy, the first and most famous 
of these reformers, established the Brahnto 


Soniaj, which may be translated the " Church 
of God,'" in 1880, at Calcutta. A rationalistic 
and pantheistic tendency belonged to the move- 
ment from the first, to which was added, in 1853, 
under the guidance of the new champion, Koshub 
Chimder Sen, the strong effort at social reform, 
traces of which we have met in a previous chap- 
ter. The movement divided quickly into dif- 
ferent Somajes, with different shades of belief 
and points of contention. The leading tenets 
of the Prarfchana Somaj will illustrate both 
the nobleness and the inadequacy of the whole 
reform : 

1. I believe in one God, 2, I renounce idol 
worship. 3. I will do my best to lead a moral 
life. 4. If I commit any sin through the weak- 
ness of my moral nature, I will repent of it, 
and ask the pardon of God. 

The omission of Christ from this declaration 
is characteristic. None of these reformers have 
given full and hearty allegiance to him as a per- 
sonal Saviour, and herein lies the pitiful deadness 
and inadequacy of the effort which has taken 
but little hold on the Hindu people at large. 
u The only twice-born men who can change the 
morals of India for the better are those who 
are born again by God's Spirit into likeness to 
Christ," Even Mr. Sen, whose early reform 
measures enlisted widespread sympathy and 
admiration, fell, before his death, into most 
fantastic and deplorable errors. 

252 xrrx CHEISTI 


Revival of the Spirit of Missionary Devotion 

Among these forces, wMcli are clear and in- 
dubitable in our own country, we recognize, out 
of the materialism, the mammon and luxury 
worship, and the selfishness, a new and powerful 
Renaissance. It is the revival of a perception 
of the unity of the race, and the brother- 
hood of men, and a rediscovery of the Law of 
Service, the Law of Sacrifice, and the Law of 
Love. To it we owe the invasion of India 
by the Christian associations both of young 
men and young women. To it wo owe the 
Student Volunteer Movement, with its well- 
tempered enthusiasm, its sturdy discipline, and 
the sublime audacity of its thrilling watchword: 
" The evangelization of the world in this genera- 
tion." To this new inspiration we owe it that, 
from our most prospered families, from colleges 
and universities, select souls, young men and 
women of high heart, pure mind, and noble 
endowment are going forth in great numbers 
to live their lives amid the darkness of the 
heathen world. In some cases whole families 
are doing this in touching and noble unison. 
Never, perhaps, did the old motto, NobUwe 
oblige, reach to the height of, heroism, to the 
depths of martyrdom, that it measures to-day. 


Character of Missionaries 

With advancing- standards of education at 
home, the missionaries of to-day are a more 
thoroughly equipped and disciplined company 
than in any preceding period; with the opening 
up of the East, they are coming into the eye of 
the whole world as never before, and their intel- 
lectual achievements, the beauty of their Christ- 
like lives, and the nature of the results of their 
labor, at last begin in some degree to be appre- 
hended. The unique position of wholly dis- 
interested citizens of India which they occupy, 
in contrast with other foreigners who are there 
for trade or other selilsh purposes, commands 
the respect of the whole world. Further than 
that, this unique position involves offices of trust 
and of mediation which may be tested and put 
to the touch in the coming century in ways of 
which we do not dream to-day. It is probable 
that in no realm of the heathen world have 
missionaries the far-reaching power and influence 
which they have in India, owing to the friendly 
relations between them and the government. 
It can fairly be said that every reform of the 
crimes of Hinduism has been undertaken at the 
instance of missionaries, from the days of Carey 
to the present time. One of the greatest of 
India's statesmen, Lord Lawrence, has said, 
"In my judgment Christian missions have done 
more real, lasting good to the peoples of India 

254 LUX CURltiTI 

than all other agencies combined, " Everywhere 
they have led the way, and the government has 
followed. An American Methodist woman, from 
a little western New York village, began medi- 
cal work in 1869 among the women of India, 
and the Lady Dufferin Fund, under royal pat- 
ronage, followed. Hannah Marshiuan, Ann Jud- 
son, wives of Baptist missionaries, and the wives 
of the Bombay American Board pioneers began 
schools for Indian girls early in the century, 
and now the Indian government has taken up 
the work initiated by them. 

" Not long ago the burning of a widow on the 
funeral pyre of her husband was the custom," 
says Maurice Phillips of the London Society. 
u Missionaries agitated, and that custom was 
abolished. Not long ago infanticide was the 
custom. Missionaries agitated, and that was 
abolished. Not many years ago civil service 
and military officers of government attended 
heathen festivals, not in order to protect them, 
but in order to add dignity to them. Mission- 
aries agitated, and put an end to that. Not 
long ago the government managed all the tem- 
ples, it collected the revenues, it paid the priests, 
it paid the dancing-girls, the prostitutes of India, 
Missionaries agitated, and that was abolished. 
Not long ago converts to Christianity lost their 
civil rights. Missionaries agitated, and a law 
was passed that a change of faith did not involve 
the loss of any civil liberty. Not long ago the 


government prohibited the women who had 

embraced Christianity from wearing clothes 
above their waist, 1 Missionaries agitated, and 
an order was given that the Christian women 
should be allowed to dress decently. In this 
way missionaries watched the proceedings of the 
government in India. We criticise, we agitate, 
we petition, and when missionaries petition in a 
body, they are generally listened to favorably." 

Character of Native Converts 

Nowhere do we iind brighter hope of light for 
India than in the character of her native Chris- 
tians from the clays of the Mutiny down. Doubts 
arc often cast upon the capacity of the Hindu 
to accept and assimilate Christianity. Let him 
who doubts go to India and see quarrelsome, 
obscene, half-barbarous men transformed into a 
manhood of dignity, honor, and of self-denying, 
humble devotion to the good of others ; women 
lifted from sullen, hopeless ignorance and low 
servility to the sweet and hallowed life of 
honored and enlightened womanhood. Let him 
compare the vacant-minded voluptuary of the 

1 The women of the humbler orders in Travancore were 
formerly forbidden to wear any clothing above the waist ; but 
those who became Christians felt this unbecoming and began 
to wear a loose jacket. The caste women regarded this as a 
gross insult to them, and for years a bitter persecution was 
carried on, beginning in 1827. It was not until 1850 that 
the Shanax women were legally permitted to wear an upper 


zenana with the Hindu college girl of to-day. 
Let him visit the homes of the Christian natives 
and see the new order, the new grace, the new 
self-respect which transform them into the norm 
and type of all that is best in human society. 
Let him visit the native churches and find them 
often not only well sustained and self-support- 
ing, but already missionary churches, giving out 
of their poverty, with nobly pathetic sacrifice, 
for the Christianizing of their fellows in hea- 

The Decay of Hinduism 

The lower forms of Hinduism, animistic and 
demonistic beliefs, are rapidly giving way, 
while the dry rot at work at the heart of the 
system Is symbolized by the general decay of 
Hindu temples throughout the country. For 
this decay Lord Curzon recently called the 
people to task, a straw which shows how much 
direct aid Christianity may expect of the Brit- 
ish government. New temples when built are 
on an inferior scale and usually among rural 
populations. Among the classes influenced by 
western ideas Hinduism is rapidly breaking 
up. Said a Hindu: "Hinduism is sick unto 
death. I am fully persuaded that it must fall." 
" The younger men do not much mind caste 
rules, not more than we can help," said another. 
Hinduism, "by absorption and' expansion, has 
grown into the most gigantic, debasing parody 
of true religion in existence." Hollow through, 


and through, the clay of Its downfall must come 
and cannot tarry. 

The Christian Religion 

However we may gather courage from the 
disintegration of heathenism, or from other 
sources at home and abroad, the supreme hope 
and the supreme inspiration for India are in the 
light of the knowledge of the glory of God in 
the face of Jesus Christ. The story of missions 
in India is only the process of love at work. 
For the worker in the half-indifferent church 
at home, for the missionary on the field, for the 
native of India just coming into light, there is 
alike the touch of that 

" Perfect life in perfect labor writ, 
Of all men's Comrade, Servant, King, and Priest, 

the crystal Christ." 

The law of highest service, that of self-sac- 
rifice, was first made known, to a world which 
sought its own, on the Cross of Calvary. Slowly 
has that majestic, sweet, and awful law had its 
outworking through nineteen centuries. Ori- 
ental religions have never conceived of it. They 
have sacrifice, indeed, but it is the barren sac- 
rifice of selfish asceticism undergone to acquire 
merit ; the pitiful sacrifice of dumb brutes slain 
to propitiate reluctant gods. It is the surpass- 
ing glory and beauty of Christianity that its 
prime motive is the willing sacrifice of the in.di- 

258 zrrx 

vidnal, hoping nothing for himself, in order 
to bring healing and rescue to his felhnv-men. 
The Cross of Christ is the light of India, the 
light of the world. 

In hoc signo mnces. 




The revelation of the, Orient is the opportunity of the 
missionary. Hitherto he 1ms been fitfully revealed by 
the accident of important events or had in memory by 
religious conventicles alone, lie, too, comes into the 
rang*e of secular vision. His seclusion is at an end. 
What ho is, what he does, and what he knows will be 
matter of solicitude as he turns the eyes of the conscience, 
of Christianity upon the practices and transactions about 
him. Ho may not desire it, but he iy the accredited cen- 
sor of foreign residents and policies. He is the witness 
of the Went in the heart of the East. He cannot hide 
himself if he would, lie stands in the full blaze of pub- 
licity for criticism or approval. His office of mediation 
between the East and West is immensely enlarged. He 
is at a railway termintiB and in reach of the telegraph. 
His stores of information will be demanded in every 
political difficulty and in every emergency and abuse of 
trade, and he cannot withhold his knowledge. He must 
testify at the coxmcil board of the powers, and his infor- 
mation will be indispensable to statesmen. He is hence- 
forth a part of the world's bureau of intelligence. B. D. 


The opened world the simplified faith! Surely this 
of all times is not the time to disbelieve in foreign mis- 
sions ; surely he who despairs of the power of the gospel 
to convert the world to-day, despairs of the noontide just 
when the sunrise is breaking out of twilight on the earth. 
Distance has ceased to be a hindrance. Language no 
longer makes men total strangers* A universal commerce 
is creating common bases and forms of thought. For the 


first time in the history of the world there is a manifest, 
almost an immediate possibility of a universal religion. 
No wonder that at such a time the missionary spirit, which 
had slumbered for centuries, should have sprung upon its 
feet, and the last fifty years should have been one of the 
very greatest epochs in missionary labor in the whole 
history of the world. BISHOP PHILLIPS BEOOKS. 


Beyond doubt the missionaries have a great repute for 
goodness, for charity, for devotion to duty throughout the 
heathen world ; they have done much to ram our national 
character; to remove doubts regarding our wans, our 
politics, and our administration, and to soften the memo- 
ries of many unhappy events, which, from various causes, 
have come to pass during the nineteenth century, I 
know that you will occasionally hear opinions contrary 
to those which I am now most positively pronouncing. 
You will hear the mission cause decried, and the results 
of the mission disparaged, whereas I say that these re- 
sults are fully commensurate with all the efforts you have, 
made, that the reports you receive are worthy of entire 
acceptance, their only defect being that they cannot give 
you the impression of the beauty and excellence of the 
work as it is indelibly fixed in my own mind. Indeed, I 
ana myself at this moment hopeless of conveying to you 
the glowing images which I have in my own thoughts of 
Protestant missions of all denominations, and I have been 
acquainted more or less with all the missions from Cape 
Comorin to the Himalayan, the fairest arid finest fluid 
now in the non-Christian world for Christian evangelisa- 
tion. The Right lion* SIR EIOHAKP TWMPLK, formerly 
Lieutenant- Governor of Bengal, Governor of Bombay, and 
Chief Commissioner of the Central Provinces, 



Whatever harms love harms missions. Hence it is per- 
fectly plain that, the warlike spirit, if it takes possession 
of a people, and animates their thought and feeling, is dis- 
tinctly fatal to the missionary motive. The breaking o 
the raw* Into waning groups, or groups pledged to the 
spirit and aim of war, is ruinous to the missionary work. 
The war feeling toward men and the missionary feeling 
toward men are, opposite and incompatible just so far as 
they are active and strong. And so we are compelled to 
nay that the recent awakening o the warlike spirit must 
be counted among the influences that perpetuate the pres- 
ent crisis in missions, and threaten to perpetuate it far 
into the coming century. WILLIAM N. CLARKK. 

England paid for the war in Afghanistan sixty millions, 
while, one-eighth of that Hum wan all the entire church of 
Christ could devote in that same year to the world-wide 

campaign for Christ, < A. T, PIKESON. 


Widely distributed throughout Christendom, though 

necessarily hidden from view, are to be found what 

might be specially named good men- souls who love 
goodness for its own sake, and are bent toward doing 
good, an mankind in general is bent toward doing evil. 
How these souls, charily keeping themselves from the 
view of the public, are striving to make this world a 
little better by their efforts and prayers; how they often 
shed tears for the wretchedness of the state of the people 
of whom they read only in newspapers; how they lay 
upon their hearts the welfare of the whole of mankind ; 
and how willing they are to take part in the work of 
ameliorating human misery and ignorance, these I 


saw and witnessed with my own eyes, and can testify to 
tlie genuine spirit that underlies them all. These silent 
men are they who, in their country's peril, arc the iirst to 
lay down their lives in its service ; who, when told of a 
new mission enterprise in a heathen land, will deliver 
their railroad fares to the missionaries who undertake 
it, and return home tramping on their feet, and praise 
God for their having done so ; who, in their big tearful 
hearts, understand all the mysteries of Divine Mercy, 
and hence are merciful toward all around them. No 
fierceness and blind zeal with these mem, but gentleness 
and cool calculation in doing good. Indeed, I can nay 
with all truthfulness that I saw good men only in Chris- 
tendom. Brave men, honest men, righteous men, arc 
not wanting in heathendom ; but I doubt whether good 
mejlj by that I mean those men summed up in that 
one English word which has no equivalent in other lan- 
guage, "Gentleman,"! doubt whether such are pos- 
sible without the religion of Jesus Christ to mould us. 
"The Christian, God Almighty's gentleman " he is a 
unique figure in this world, indescribably beautiful, 
noble, and lovable. KANZO UCUIMUKA. 

When an English lady (as, for instance, Mrs. Besant) 
of decent culture professes to be an admirer of Tantrio 
mysticisms and Krishna worship, it behooves every well- 
wisher of the country to tell her plainly that sensible 
men do not want her eloquence for gilding what in 
rotten. In fact, abomination worship is the chief ingre- 
dient of modern Hinduism. 

From lieis and Rwyyet, Calcutta Hindu newspaper. 

Many persons mistake the way in which the conver- 
sion of India will be brought about. I believe it will 
take place wholesale, just as our own ancestors 
converted, SIR CHARLES 



The churches now, as in all former ages, deem It right 
and highly commendable for some of Christ's disciples 
to renounce all prospects of worldly emolument and ease, 
to commit themselves and their families, if they have 
any, under Providence into the hands of charity j to 
forego the comforts and endearments of civilized society 
and Christian friends ; to brave every danger, whether 
from the raging billows of the ocean, the sickly climate, 
or the sanguinary barbarian, and to meet death in what- 
ever time, place, or form it may be allotted them and 
all this for the sake of preaching Christ to the heathen. 
By approving and, as is the fact, requiring this of their 
missionaries, they do virtually bind themselves to make 
corresponding sacrifices and exertions to the same end. 
I am not pleading that missionaries should be eased 
of their burdens or alleviated in their sacrifices. No, I 
plead with Christians that they would p,ct consistently. 
I entreat them to behold in what they require of their 
missionaries the measure of their own duty to Christ 
and to the heathen. Until a principle of action more 
commensurate with other duty enjoined is adopted, and 
the work of evangelizing the heathen is more equally 
shared among Christians generally, as was the fact in 
the first ages of the church^ we have no good reason to 
expect that the world will be converted. 

HALL, Bombay, 1820. 

The greatest hindrances to the evangelization of the 
world are those within the church. JOHN R. MOTT. 


The missionary appears to me to be the highest type 
of human excellence in the nineteenth century, and Ms 

profession to be the noblest. He has the enterprise of the 


merchant, -without the narrow desire of gain; the daunt- 
lessuess of the soldier, without the shedding of blood ; 
the zeal of the geographical explorer, but for a higher 
motive than science. And if there is anything greater 
than an English missionary, it IB an American. 


Cablegram from English and American Student Vol- 
unteers : 

India never before so open, so ripe, so hopeful, so critical, 
so needy as now. India prays for the, awakening of Amer- 
ica to look, pray, send, and come for her awakening. 

Lahore, Punjab, February, 1898. 

Thou, that from eternity 

Upon Thy wounded heart hast borne 
Each pang and cry of misery 

Wherewith our human hearts are torn, 

Thy love upon the grievous cross 
Doth glow, the beacon-light of time, 

Forever sharing pain and loss 
With every man in every clime. 

How vast, how vast Thy sacrifice, 

As ages come and ages go, 
Still waiting, till it shall suffice, 

To draw the last cold heart and slow* 

. D0IM3K. 

None but Jesus, none but Josus deserves to wear the 
bright and glorious diadem of India, and Jesus Chrint 
shall have it. KBSHUB CuxwDBit SEN. 



O God, who hast mad of one blood all nations of men 
to dwell upon the face of Thy whole earth, and who 
didst send Thy blessed Son to preach peace to them that 
are afar off and to them that are nigh, grant that all the 
people of Hindu, Buddhist, and Mohammedan lands 
may feel after Thee and find Thee ; and hasten, () Lord, 
the fulfilment of Thy promise to pour out Thy Spirit 
upon all flesh. 

() Lord God, who rulest in the kingdoms of men and 
givest them to whomsoever Thou wilt, we present our 
humble supplications before Thee in behalf of India. 
Make us faithful, we beseech Thee, in so great a trust, 
Give us a spirit of true compassion for the multitudes in 
that land who yet walk in darkness and the shadow of 
death. Suffer them no longer to bow down to idols 
which their own hands have made. Lead them from 
the corrupt worship of false gods to worship Thee in 
tho beauty of holine*SB. Have pity on their blindness, 
their misplaced confidence, their mistaken zeal, their 
self-inflicted sufferings. Teach them the pure mystery 
of the Incarnation of Thy blessed Son. Deliver them 
from, their dread of the powers of darkness. Raise up 
among them, O Lord, teachers of Thy truth, who may 
lead them to embrace tho holy faith of Thy Church ; 
for Thy mercy's sake, through, Jesus Christ our Lord. 



I. India as a Point of Vantage in winning the East- 
ern World to Christ. 

II. Missions in India as Social Settlements. 
HI. Material, Intellectual, and Political Improvement 

in India under British Rule. 
IV. Dangers of Civilization without Christianity. 
V. Question for Debate : Should the British Viceroy 
urge the Hindus to keep their Temples in 
Repair ? 
VI. What should be the Attitude of Christian Womon 

toward Theosophy and Kindred Cults ? 
VII. Native Hindu Reformers. 

VIII. Where does the Responsibility for the Enlighten- 
ment of India's Millions rest ? 

IX. Contrast between the Timidity of many Indian 
Politicians and the Courage of Indian Mission- 
X. What may be involved to a High-caste Hindu in 

making a Public Christian Confession? 
XI. The Missionary Enterprise and th Kingdom of 

XII. The Religion of Christ the Supreme Revelation. 


Bell's "British Rule in India," III. 
Bushnell's " Nature and the Supernatural," XII. 
Clarke's " Study of Christian Missions," VIII, X, XIL 
Dennis's " Foreign Missions after a Century/' IV, VIII, 

IX, X, XH 
EHinwood's " Oriental Religions and Christianity," VII, 

Fuller's "Wrongs of Indian Womanhood," VI, VII, IX. 


Christian Missions and the Use of Wealth," 

Gordon's " The Holy Spirit in Missions," VIIT, XI, XII. 
Martin's u Apostolic and Modern Missions," XI, XII. 
Manon'8 u Litfele Green God," VI. 
JVlott'a " Evangelization of the World in this Generation,'* 

vi n, xi, xii. 

Mott's "Strategic Points in the World's Conquest," I, 


Pierson's Crisis of Missions," I, VIII, IX, XT, XII. 
PiorsoiTs u Divine Enterprise of Missions," VIII, XI, 


Bam Chuudra Bose's " Brahmoism," VI, VII. 
Robbing's u Handbook of India," III. 
Smith's "Conversion of India," 1, III, VII, VIII, XL 
Spoor's "Missions and Politics in Asia," III, IV, VIII, 


Strong's " New Era," VIII. 
Strong's " Next Great Awakening," XT. 
Temple's " India in 18BO," III, V, VIII. 
Warneck's " Modern Missions and Culture," IV, IX. 
Wilder's * Among India's Students," I, III, IV, VII, X. 
Sir M. William s's *' Modern India and the Indians," III, 

Sir M. Williams's ** Religious Thought and Life in 

India," V, VIL 





"Between Life and Death." I. II. Barnes. Marshall 
Bros., London. 3s. (kl. 

a Brief History of the Indian Peoples.** Sir W. W. 
Hunter. II. Prowdo, 01 .Fifth Avenue.. 256 pp. 

"Christian Missions and Social Progress/* J. S. Dennis. 
Fleming- II. Rovoll Co. vols." Each vol. ,12,50. 

** Conversion of India/' CJoorge Smith. Fleming II. 
Rtwell Co. 11.50. 

u Kc.umvsnical Miss. Conforonco Report, 1000," American 
Tract Society, ti vols. $l.f>0. 

"Encyclopaedia of Missions/* K. M. Bliss. .Funk and 
Wagualto* L> vols, f I2.00. 1 

"Handbook of Comparative Religion." S. IL Kellogg. 
Westminster Press. Paper, JU) cente; cloth, 75 cents. 

" High Caste Hindu Woman/' Pundita Kamabai. Flem- 
ing II. Revell Co. 0.75. 

" Iliuduism." Sir Monicu* Williams. Young & Co., 
Cooper Institute. $1.00. (An abridgment of "Re- 
ligious Thought and Life.") 

" Hindu Literature." K. A. Reed. Scott, Norseman Co., 
Chicago. $1.50. 

* While the price of these volumes is relatively high, they 
will prove a good investment as "being equally indispensable 
for the study of all missionary subjects. 


"India and Malaysia." J. M, Thoburn. Hunt and 
Eaton. $1.50. 

"In India." G. W. Steevens. Dodd, Mead and Co. 

"Life of Adoniram Judson." Edward Judson. Amer- 
ican Baptist Publication Society. $1.25. 

"Men of Might in India Missions." H. E. Holcoinb. 
Fleming H. Revell Co. $1,25. 

" Missionary Expansion since the Reformation." J. A. 
Graham. Fleming H. Revell Co. $1.25. (With 
eight colored maps and 145 illustrations.) 

"Mosaics from India." M. E. Denning, Fleming IL 
Revell Co. $1.25. 

" Our Sisters in India." E, Storrow. Fleming IL Eevell 
Co. $1.25, 

"Religious Thought and Life in India." Sir Monior 
Williams. (Also called " Brahmanism and Hindu- 
ism.") Macmillarx Co. $3.50 

"Short History of India." J. Talboys Wheeler. Mae- 
mlllan Co. $3.50. 

" Wrongs of Indian Womanhood." M. B. Fuller. Flem- 
ing H. Revell Co. $1.25. 


Assembly Herald (Pres.)j U. S. 

Baptist Missionary Magazine (A. B. M. II.) , U. S. 

Chronicle London Missionary Society, England. 

Church Missionary Intelligencer (C. M. S.), England, 

Foreign Missionary Tidings (Pres,), Canada. 

Friends' Missionary Advocate (Friends), U, S. 

Helping Hand (W. B, F, M. S.), U. S. 

Life and Light for Women (Woman *B Board, Cong.), U. S. 

Messenger and Record (PrevS.), England. 

Mission Studies (Board of Interior, Cong.), IT. S. 

Missionary Gleaner (Dutch Reformed), U. S. 

Missionary Herald (Baptist), England, 


Missionary Link (Woman's Union), U. S. 

Missionary Outlook (M. E.), Canada. 

Missionary Review of the World (Interdenominational), 


Missionary Tidings (Christian), U. S. 
Spirit of Missions (P. E. Church), U. S. 
Woman's Missionary Friend (M. E.), U. S. 
Woman's Work for Woman (Pros.), U. S. 
Women's Missionary Magazine (United Free Church), 



Amin .... Head of district. 

Anna .... Copper coin = ^ of a rupee. 

Ayah .... Nurse. 

Balm .... English-speaking native gentleman. 

Bakshish . . Fee, gratuity. 

Bazar .... Street in which are shops. 

Bajjan . . . Hymn. 

Begum ... A Mohammedan princess. 

Bhisti .... Water carrier. 

Bibi Wife. 

Bulbul . . . Indian nightingale, 

Bungalow . European residence. 

Bunghias . . Sweepers ; the lowest caste. 

Bunnia . . . Shopfeeeper. 

Chainars . . Leather workers. 

Chaprassi . Attendant, messenger. 

Charpoy . . Portable bedstead. . 

Chela , * . . Disciple. 

Chilani . . . Pipe. 

Chit ..... Written testimonial or message. 

Chopatti . . Unleavened bread, universally used. , 

Chuddar . . Muslin covering for the head. 

Compound . Land surrounding bungalow. 

Crore .... Ten millions. 

Dak The post, the relay of men. 

Dandy . . . Conveyance carried by coolies. 

Deodar . . . A kind of cedar. 

Dervish . . . Mohammedan fanatic. 

Deva .... God. 

Dhoti .... Washerman. 



Drwanor) A comci i. 

Divan ) 

Durbar . . . Court reception. 

Gharri ... A carriage. 

Ghat .... A quay or flight of steps leading to the 

water. Also a steep mountain side. 

Ghee .... Clarified butter. 

Gosain . . . Member of a Bengali sect. 

Guru .... Religious teacher. 

Hadji .... A Mohsiiumedan gentleman who has made 

the pilgrimage to Mecca. 

Hakim . . . Physician. 

Howdiih . . Scat used for riding elephants. 

Karma . . . The law of consequences Buddhistic. 

Khitmutgar A servant or butler, usually Mohammedan. 

Kismet T . . Destiny, 

Kowree ... A small white shell used for money among 

the poorest people. 

Lakh .... 100,000. 

Lama .... A celibate priest (Buddhist). 

Lascar . . . Servant in charge of tents. 

Lat Monolithic column. 

Lota ..... Metal cooking utensil. 

MadriSvsah . School. 

Maha- .... Used in composition, meaning great. 

Mahadova . Great God, used of Siva. 

Mahajan . . Money lender. 

Mali at ma . - An adept of the first order* 

Maidau . . . Plain. 

Mela .... A fair. 

Memsahib . Lady^ 

M'lecha . . . Foreigner, alien, 

Moulvie .. Native- Mohammedan teacher. 

Minishi . . . Teacher. 

Musjid . . . Mosque. 

Nawab . . . Mohammedan chief. 

Nirvana . . Oblivion. 

Paddy .... Rice in the husk. 

Padre Sahib Clergyman or missionary. 

Pan The leaf which encloses the betelnut. 

Pairi Water. 

Pan supari . The betelnut. 

Patel .... Head man. 

Pathan ... A mixed tribe on the boundary between 

Afghanistan and Hindustan. 


Peshwa . . * Head o the Mahratta dynasty. 

Pioo ..... Small copper coin, one-half cent 

Poor. .... Town, used a a terminal, as Jeypoor. 

Pujah .... Worship. 

Pukka . . . Firm, strong. 

Hj t top f A learned man. 

Pundita . . . Feminine of pundit. 

Punkah ... A swinging fan. 

Purdah ... A curtain. 

Rajah .... Prince or sovereign. 

Kana .... A prince or king. 

Rani ... * Q,ueen. 

Rupee. . . . About thirty-three cents. 

Ryot .... Peasant. 

Saddlm . . . An ascetic. 

Sahib .... Sir, lord. 

Salaam , . . Salutation. 

Sari ..... Woman's garment. 

Seer ..... Not quite two potmds. 

Sh abash , . Well done. 

Situra .... A musical instrument. 

8 wan i i * . . Religious teacher. 

Tiffin .... Lunch. 

Tonga * . . A light, two-wheeled vehicle. 

Tulsi .... Sacred plant. 

Yishu Masib Jesus* 

Yogi .... Hindu fanatic or ascetic. 

Zayat .... Wayside chapel. 

Zemindar . Hereditary occupier of the soil. 

Zenana . . . Apartments of ladies of rank. 


a . * . Without an accent has tho Bound of u in fun. 

Hence many words are spelled for convenience 

with u in place of a, as pundit for pandit. 
ai . . Has the sound of y in lyre. Hence Gosain should 

be pronounced Go-sine* 
e . . . Has the sound of e in grey. Hence mda should 

be pronounced mey-lctr. 
i, * . . Has the sound of <?, as i in police. Hence Bibi 

should be pronounced Be-be ; ghi, < 
u . . . Without accent has the sound of oo. 




OF * 


Official Meturns of all India, issued from Calcutta, 
May 2, 2901 

Total of all denominations 
European and other races 
Natives .... 

Total Keturned 





Baptist ..... 
Lutheran and allied denomina- 
tions ..... 155,455 
Methodist .... 76,,869 
Presbyterian. .... 53,829 
Friends ..... 1,309 
Roman Catholic . . . 1,202,039 
Salvationist .... 18,960 

Syrian 571,827 

Scattering .... 131,210 
















Aborigines, 5, 6, 

Afghan, Invasion, 38, 41, 4, 45, 

56, 61, 02 ; frontier, 157, 
Ag of conwtfit, 181), 100. 
Agitation, by missionaries, 187, 

188, 254, 255. 
Agni, 2, 9, 10. 
Agra, 43, 44, 83, 130, 139. 
Agriculture, 88, 91. 
Ahmudnagar, 150, 217. 
Akbar, 88, 44, 47, 50, 83, 139. 
Alexander tho Groat, 40. 
Allahabad, (58, 156, 163, 191,208. 
American Board, 149, 150, 154, 

158, 195, 196 ; missionaries of, 


Aniritnar, 47, 187. 
Andernon, John, 159, 160. 
Anglican Church, ti# Church of 


Anglo* Indians, 145 j Temper- 
ance AHHOclation, 169. 
Animal-worBhip, 2, 19, 108, 109. 
Arcot, 151, 158, 108, 199. 
Arnold, Sir Edwin, 24, 107, 108, 
Aryan, 3, 5, 9, 1C, 20, 20, 36, 42, 

53, 85-89. 
AnceticB, 28, 122, 
Asia, 4, 7, 23, 41, 61, 74. 
ABoka, 23, 40, 82, 83. 
Assam, 6, 65, 70, 71, 153, 169. 
Aurangseeb, 38, 44, 46, 61. 
Auxiliaries, Women's, 194-201. 
Avatar, 19, 112, 

Baptist Missionary Societies : 
English, 182, 147-149, 155; 

Zenana, 195; Canadian, 166; 
Free-will, 154 ; American 

Baptist Missionary Union, 

149, 151-154. 
Baroilly, 158, 211, 212, 
Bohar, 40, 157, 231. 
Benares, 114, 127, 130. 
Bengal, 62, 03, 70, 71, 75, 81. 
Bengali, 8(5, 148, 149, 176, 187. 
Bentinck, Lord, 65, 69, 189. 
Berlin Mission, 157. 
Besant, Anne, 238, 239, 202. 
Bhagavad-Gita, 29, 108. 
Biblewomeu, 203, 204. 
Bishop, Isabella B., 99, 125. 
BiHBoll, Dr. Julia, 217. 
Boardman, George I)., 152. 
Bombay, 58, (50, 74, 75, 88, 88, 

132, 143, 150, 159, 172, 
Bose, Chandra Mukhi, 184, 


Boughton, Dr. G., 60. 
Bralmxa, 11, 17, 18. 
Brahmanas, 12, 26. 
Brahmanism, 11, 16, 105, 242. 
Brahinans, 12, 13, 16, 17, 89, 

108, 121, 122, 179. 
Brahmoism, 250. 
Brindaban, 112. 
British India, 47, 70. 
British rule, 69, 244, 249, 250. 
British, the, 58. 
Brown, David, 146. 
Brown, Nathan, 153. 
Buddha, 16, 21, 35. 
Buddhism, 1, 21-26, 35, 118, 


Burial hymn, 32. 
Burial rites, 100. 
Burma, 6, 60, 172. 
Butler, William, 158. 



Calcutta, 61; Black Hole of ,03, 
71, 75, 88. 

Canning, Lord, (>6*, 64). 

Cape Comorin, 55, 74. 

Carey, William, 146, 175, 176, 

Carpenter, Mary, 101. 

Caste, 1, 32, 120, 243. 

Cawnporo, 67. 

Census, 85. 

Ceylon, 24, 58, 150, 154. 

Chandra Gupta, 40. 

Chaplains, English, 145. 

Childbirth, 214, 

Child-marriage, 100, 101, 181). 

Child-widows, 101-103, L'OO, 
210; prayer of, 222. 

Chota Kagpore, 157. 

Churches, native t 153, 250. 

Church of England, 145, 141), 
164, 165; O.M.S., 147, 1M; 
B.F. G., 165; Women's So- 
cieties, 103, 104, 105 ; Zenana 
Mission, 202. 

Civil service, 03. 

Olive, Lord, 61, 04. 

Clough, John E,, 154. 

Colombo, 154. 

C< mgr eg ation alis ts, TQnff 1 Inh , 
149 ; American, see American 

Oooke, Miss, 192, 202. 

Coromandel, 50. 

Cosmas, 135. 

Cow, worship of, 109. 

Cruelty, 108. 

Onrzon ,Lord, Lady, 73, 220, 256. 

Cyras the Great, 30, 54. 

Da Gama, Vaseo, 56. 
DalhouHio, Lord, <i(i, 70. 
Danish Missions, 141. 
Davids, Rhys, 25, 35. 
Day, Samuel, 153. 
Dotwan 42, 74. 
Dohra Dun, 157. 
Delhi, 41, 44; sack of, 45, 69. 

Dcvadasis, 103. 
Dialects, 85, 86, 149. 
Dispensaries, 212, 213. 
District, 71. 

DoromuH, Mrs. X. 0., 193. 
Dravidian, 6, 80. 
Dims, 95. 

Dull, Alexander, 50, 106, 201. 
Duff erin Fund, 218-220. 
Duploix, 01. 
DuU'-h, 11 10, 57. 
DnU'.h Missions, 141. 
Dutch Kofonncd Mission, 151, 

East India Company, 5iH>9; 

attitude of, 14IM45. 
EdtK^itional work, ItHI, 204 -HOT. 
Knipim, British, 6.1. 
Kunusiaim, 192. 
Muropoau invaders, iirM>;. 

family life, 08, 00. 
Famine, 01. 
Famkhalmd, 156. 
Fatalism, 243. 
Feudatory states, 71, 172. 
Forman, C. W., 156. 
French, the, 58,61. 
PrioudH, English and American, 

Ganosa, 19, 112. 

Ganges, 4, 40. 

Gautama, 21. 

Ghats, 74. 

Ghoe, 0. 

Goa, 5(i, 137. 

Government, British, 71, 244, 

Government reforms, 187* 

Government Behooln, 191. 

Govoriior-^ouoralH, 05, (50, 71* 

Oranth, 40. 

Greek invasion, 40. 

Haidarabad,71,74, 88. 
Hall, Gordon, 150, 181,203. 
Hallo nntwiouarios, 14S, 143. 



Haveloek, General, 07, 
Hawthorne, Julian, 7H, 120, 234. 
Haystack missionaries, 150; 

meeting, 170. 

Ilober, Reginald, 140, 174, 181. 
Hebrews, 3. 
Hegira, 48, 50. 
Himalayas, 3, 71, 76. 
Hinduism, 17, 105. 

decay of, 250. 
Hindus* 88 et seq. 
Holland, 61. 
Hospitals i 

Presbyterian, 150. 

First woman's, 1212, 

Idolatry, 107, 
Idols, 108, 249. 

Illiteracy, 99. 

Immorality, 115. 

Income, 92. 

India, conversion of, 233, 234. 

India, now, 245. 

Indian Reform Association, 189. 

Indo-Aryans, 4~8. 

Imlra, 3,9,53, 

Indus, 4. 

Industrial schools, 205. 

Infanticide, 187, 

Ingatherings, 154, 163, 164, 165. 

Inquisition, 138. 

Invaders, 39, 133, 

Islam, 48 ; last word of, 80. 

Jaffna College, 151. 
Jagan-nath, 113. 
Jalnlsm, 2, 34, 
Jehangir, 44. 
Jallasore, 154. 
Jay pore, 158. 
Jordanus, 137, 
Judson, Adoniratn, 150, 178. 
Judson, Ann H., 152, 222. 
Judson, Sarah B, 152. 
Jumna, 4. 

Justice, administration of, 71, 

Kali, 20, 61. 

Kapilavastu, 22. 

Karens, 152, 173. 

Khyber Pans, 45, 74. 

Kipling, Eudyard, 76, 82, 128, 

18(5, 221. 
Kismet, 52. 
Kistna, 155, 166. 
Kolarian, 6. 
Kols, 1(14. 

Koran, 48, 52, 79, 127. 
Ko-tlxali-byu, 152. 
Kottayam, 130. 
Krishna, 2, 20, 312. 
Krishna Pal, 148, 175. 
Kusinara, 23. 
Kutab-Minar, 42. 

Lalioro, 40, 160. 
Lawrence, Lord, 70, 253. 
Lepers, work among, 156, 1G9. 
tango, 2, 112, 113, 114. 
London Missionary Society , 155, 


Lo wen thai, Isidor, 157, 
Lowrie, John C., 156. 
Lueknow, 88, 162. 
Lucknow College, 200, 
Ludhiana, 150. 
Lutherans, 155, 157; Swedish, 


Macaulay, Lord, 65, 124, 125. 
Madras, 61, 75, 88, 
Madura Mission, 151, 
Maha-bharata, 28, 120. 
Mahmud, Sultan, 41. 
Mahratta, 45, 61, 65. 
Malabar coast, 56. 
Malabar scandals, 130. 
Mansell, Mrs. M., 189. 
Manu, code of, 12, 27, 34, 94. 
Manufacture, 88. 
Marshnmn, Hannah, 192. 
Martyn, Henry, 146. 
Martyrs of Thana, 137. 
Masullpatam, 60; college, 159. 



Maulmain, 152. 

Maya, 18, 52. 

Mecca, 4S. 

Medical Missionaries, women, 

Medical Missions, 168. 

Medina, 48. 

Methodist, English, 140; prog- 
ress, 1(>1M(>4. 

Missionaries, character of, 253. 

Mitra, 9, 53. 

Mohammed, 48. 

Mohammed of Ghor, 41. 

Mohammedanism, 51. 

Mohammedans, 41, 48. 

Mongol, 43; type, 89. 

Monotheism, 8, 51. 

Moravian Mission, 157. 

Morrison, J. 1L, 157, 162. 

Mosque, 117. 

Mozoomdar, 90, 

Mughal Empire, 43, 65. 

Maghals, 43. 

Miiller, Max, 10. 

Muralis, 104. 

Mutiny, 66-69; martyrs of, 
1C50, 161. 

Mysticism, 112, 140. 

Naina Tal, 158. 
Nanak Shah, 40. 
Nat-worship, 118. 
Nature-worship, 8. 
Nautch girls, 104, 120. 
Nellore Mission, 153. 
Nestorians, 135. 
Newton, John, 156, 169. 
Nirvana, 22. 

Cm, 9, 15. 
Ongole, 153. 
Opium traffic, 246, 
Orissa, 113, 154. 
Oudh, 66. 

Palamcotta Mission, 165. 
Pautonus, 135, 
Pantheism, 15, 36. 

Par sis, 53; women, 54; burial 
customs, 119. 

Pepper, 58. 

Persian crosses, 13(>. 

Persian invasion, 31), 45. 

Petition, use of right of, 187, 

Philosophies, 14. 

Pilgrimages, 117. 

Plant-worship, 110. 

PlasKoy, battle of, 03, 

PliUsehau, 142. 

Polygamy, i)H, 185. 

Polytheism, 3(>. 

Pondicherry, 02. 

Poona, 01, 207. 

Poor, Daniel, 150, 159. 

Population, 72; rural, 88. 

Portuguese, 5(5. 

Poverty, 91. 

Prarfchana Soniaj, 251. 

Proparatio Evangoliea, 177. 

Presbyterian: American, 15(?, t 
157, 161; Scotch United, 157; 
American United, 158; Can- 
ada, 166, 

Princeton College, 170, 

Printing press, 107* 

Proclamation, 69, 73. 

Provinces, 70. 

Provinces, Central, 66; North- 
west, 70. 

Punjab, 4, 06, 181. 

PnranaR, 29. 

Purusha hymn, 12. 

Queen Elizabeth, 44, 59, 83. 
Queen Victoria, 69, 91, 190, 

Eajputana, 42, 71. 
Kajputs, 42, 89, 97. 

Ramabai, 208-211, 223, 
Eamayaua, 28* 
Eammohun Roy, 107, 181* 
Rangoon > 47, 152. 
Kaniof Jliansi, 44. 
Beed, Mary, 215. 


Rood, "William, 15f>. 
Kelirs, worship of, 113, 110. 
Ketrtvnehxnent, 114-1. 
KheniuB, Charles, 155, 159, 


BifiS 2, 88. 

Kig-Veda, K, 2(5, 30, 31. 
Roman Catholic Missions, 130- 


Roman ttoins, 335. 
lioot, Dr. Pauline, 215, 
Ku<ini-Siva> 18. 

Baored thread, 121. 

Sacrifice, 12, 257. 

BakliHUi, 29, 111. 

Sakya-MunJ, 108. 

Sale, Mrs. John, 202, 

Sama-Veda, 27. 

Sanitary conditions, 214. 

Sanskrit, 5. 

Sarah Tucker College,, 206. 

Schwartz, G, F., 142, 17i>. 

Scotland, women's societies, 


Scuddr, John, 151, 108, 180. 
Seutldor, H, M., 151, lt>8. 
Seel union of women, 95. 
Sen, KoRhub Chunder, 107,189, 

351, 264. 

Serampore Triad, 147-149, 177, 
Shah Johan, 44, 60. 
Shastras, 28. 
Sialkot, 158. 
Sibsngor, 153. 
Sikhs, 45, 01, 65. 
Singh, Lilavati, 207 
Siva, 18, 114, 116. 
Social settlements, 235* 
Soma, 2, 9. 
Sorabji, Mrs., 207. 
Sorabji, Miss, 208, 
Southey, Robert, 147, 176. 
Spell-Veda, 27. 
Students, Indian, 242. 
Student volunteer movement, 

170, 252. 

Sudras, 243. 
Sutras, 2, 28. 
Suttee, (JT>, 187. 
Swuin, BK Clara, 211. 

Taj Mahal, 44. 
Tamerhiue, 43. 
Tamil, (S, 151. 
Tantras, 29. 
Tatars, 43. 
Taxation, 249. 
Taylor, Jiisliop, 163, 
Ttuugu Mission, 6, 153. 
Temples, lit). 
Thcosophy, 238, 239. 
Thuburn, Bishop, 93. 
Thoburn, Isabella, 197. 
Thomas, John, 147. 
Thomas, St., 134. 
Thugs, (55. 

Tibolo-Bunnan, 6, 89. 
Tinnovolly Mission, 165. 
Touring, 204, 215. 
Translation, 148, 152, 153. 
Transmigration, 2, 13. 
Travaucore, KS4. 
Tri-murti, 18, 19, 116. 
Triologuo, 191. 
Tripitaka, 24, 25, 
Twice-born, 122. 

Universities, Indian, 191. 
Upanishads, 2, 14, 15, 28. 

Valshnavism, 19, 29, 113. 

Valentine, Dr. Colin, 168. 
Vartma, 8, 20, 30. 
Vedas, 2-12. 
Vedlam, 8. 
Via Christi, 134, 143. 
Villages, 88. 
Vindhya, 4, 74. 
Vinton, Justus, 152. 
Vishnu, 16, 19, 116. 

Water worship, 110. 



"Wealth, growth of, 286. 

use of, 240, 
Week of prayer, 102. 
Wellesley, Lord, 64, 187, 188. 
"Widow-burning, see Sutteo. 
Wilberforco, William, 144. 
"Williams, Mouior, SO, 36, 

Woman's Board (Gongrega- 

tionalist),195, 196. 
Woman's Union Missionary 

Society, 193, 194. 
Woman's wrongs, 185. 
Women, status of, 14, 94-105. 

Women's Christian 
ance Union, 189. 

Xavier, Francis, 138. 
Xavir, Goronimo, 139. 

Yaimr-Veda, 27. 
Yama, 9. 

Yogis, 122. 

Zonana, 95, 202, 203. 
Zend-Avesta, 53, 81. 
Ziegcnbal^, 142. 
Zoroaster, 53.